Singh, A, Irvine KD.  2012.  Drosophila as a model for understanding development and disease.. Developmental Dynamics. 241:1-2.Website
Xu, JH, Bennetzen JL, Messing J.  2012.  Dynamic gene copy number variation in collinear regions of grass genomes. Mol Biol Evol. 29:861-71. AbstractWebsite
A salient feature of genomes of higher organisms is the birth and death of gene copies. An example is the alpha prolamin genes, which encode seed storage proteins in grasses (Poaceae) and represent a medium-size gene family. To better understand the mechanism, extent, and pace of gene amplification, we compared prolamin gene copies in the genomes of two different tribes in the Panicoideae, the Paniceae and the Andropogoneae. We identified alpha prolamin (setarin) gene copies in the diploid foxtail millet (Paniceae) genome (490 Mb) and compared them with orthologous regions in diploid sorghum (730 Mb) and ancient allotetraploid maize (2,300 Mb) (Andropogoneae). Because sequenced genomes of other subfamilies of Poaceae like rice (389 Mb) (Ehrhartoideae) and Brachypodium (272 Mb) (Pooideae) do not have alpha prolamin genes, their collinear regions can serve as "empty" reference sites. A pattern emerged, where genes were copied and inserted into other chromosomal locations followed by additional tandem duplications (clusters). We observed both recent (species-specific) insertion events and older ones that are shared by these tribes. Many older copies were deleted by unequal crossing over of flanking sequences or damaged by truncations. However, some remain intact with active and inactive alleles. These results indicate that genomes reflect only a snapshot of the gene content of a species and are far less static than conventional genetics has suggested. Nucleotide substitution rates for active alpha prolamins genes were twice as high as for low copy number beta, gamma, and delta prolamin genes, suggesting that gene amplification accelerates the pace of divergence.
Radford, SJ, Jang JK, McKim KS.  2012.  The Chromosomal Passenger Complex is required for Meiotic Acentrosomal Spindle Assembly and Chromosome Bi-orientation. Genetics. 192:417-429. AbstractWebsite
During meiosis in the females of many species, spindle assembly occurs in the absence of the microtubule-organizing centers called centrosomes. In the absence of centrosomes, the nature of the chromosome-based signal that recruits microtubules to promote spindle assembly as well as how spindle bipolarity is established and the chromosomes orient correctly towards the poles is not known. To address these questions, we focused on the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). We have found that the CPC localizes in a ring around the meiotic chromosomes that is aligned with the axis of the spindle at all stages. Using new methods which dramatically increase the effectiveness of RNAi in the germline, we show that the CPC interacts with Drosophila oocyte chromosomes and is required for the assembly of spindle microtubules. Furthermore, chromosome bi-orientation and the localization of the central spindle kinesin-6 protein Subito, which is required for spindle bipolarity, depend on the CPC components Aurora B and Incenp. Based on these data we propose that the ring of CPC around the chromosomes regulates multiple aspects of meiotic cell division including spindle assembly, the establishment of bipolarity, the recruitment of important spindle organization factors, and the bi-orientation of homologous chromosomes.
Radford, SJ, Harrison AM, McKim KS.  2012.  Microtubule-depolymerizing Kinesin KLP10A Restricts the Length of the Acentrosomal Meiotic Spindle in Drosophila Females. Genetics. 192:431-440. AbstractWebsite
During cell division, a bipolar array of microtubules forms the spindle through which the forces required for chromosome segregation are transmitted. Interestingly, the spindle as a whole is stable enough to support these forces even though it is composed of dynamic microtubules, which are constantly undergoing periods of growth and shrinkage. Indeed, the regulation of microtubule dynamics is essential to the integrity and function of the spindle. We show here that a member of an important class of microtubule-depolymerizing kinesins, KLP10A, is required for the proper organization of the acentrosomal meiotic spindle in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. In the absence of KLP10A, microtubule length is not controlled, resulting in extraordinarily long and disorganized spindles. In addition, the interactions between chromosomes and spindle microtubules are disturbed and can result in the loss of contact. These results indicate that the regulation of microtubule dynamics through KLP10A plays a critical role in restricting the length and maintaining bipolarity of the acentrosomal meiotic spindle and in promoting the contacts that the chromosomes make with microtubules required for meiosis I segregation.
Staley, B K, Irvine KD.  2012.  Hippo signaling in Drosophila: Recent advances and insights. Developmental Dynamics. 241:3-15.
Codelia, VA, Irvine KD.  2012.  Hippo Signaling Goes Long Range. Cell. 150:669-670.Website
Joyce, EF, Paul A, Chen KE, McKim KS.  2012.  Multiple Barriers to Non-homologous DNA End Joining During Meiosis in Drosophila. Genetics. 191:739-46. AbstractWebsite
Repair of meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) uses the homolog and recombination to yield crossovers while alternative pathways such as nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) are suppressed. Our results indicate that NHEJ is blocked at two steps of DSB repair during meiotic prophase: first by the activity of the MCM-like protein MEI-218 that is required for crossover formation and, second, by Rad51-related proteins SPN-B (XRCC3) and SPN-D (RAD51C) that physically interact and promote homologous recombination. We further show that the MCM-like proteins also promote the activity of the DSB repair checkpoint pathway, indicating an early requirement for these proteins in DSB processing. We propose that when a meiotic DSB is formed in the absence of both MEI-218 and SPN-B or SPN-D, a DSB substrate is generated that can enter the NHEJ repair pathway. Indeed, due to its high error rate, multiple barriers may have evolved to prevent NHEJ activity during meiosis.
Goettel, W, Messing J.  2012.  Paramutagenicity of a p1 epiallele in maize. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. (Epub Sep 18) AbstractWebsite
Complex silencing mechanisms in plants and other kingdoms target transposons, repeat sequences, invasive viral nucleic acids and transgenes, but also endogenous genes and genes involved in paramutation. Paramutation occurs in a heterozygote when a transcriptionally active allele heritably adopts the epigenetic state of a transcriptionally and/or post-transcriptionally repressed allele. P1-rr and its silenced epiallele P1-pr, which encode a Myb-like transcription factor mediating pigmentation in floral organs of Zea mays, differ in their cytosine methylation pattern and chromatin structure at a complex enhancer site. Here, we tested whether P1-pr is able to heritably silence its transcriptionally active P1-rr allele in a heterozygote and whether DNA methylation is associated with the establishment and maintenance of P1-rr silencing. We found that P1-pr participates in paramutation as the repressing allele and P1-rr as the sensitive allele. Silencing of P1-rr is highly variable compared to the inducing P1-pr resulting in a wide range of gene expression. Whereas cytosine methylation at P1-rr is negatively correlated with transcription and pigment levels after segregation of P1-pr, methylation lags behind the establishment of the repressed p1 gene expression. We propose a model in which P1-pr paramutation is triggered by changing epigenetic states of transposons immediately adjacent to a P1-rr enhancer sequence. Considering the vast amount of transposable elements in the maize genome close to regulatory elements of genes, numerous loci could undergo paramutation-induced allele silencing, which could also have a significant impact on breeding agronomically important traits.
Kim, YI, Vinyard DJ, Ananyev GM, Dismukes CG, Golden SS.  2012.  Oxidized quinones signal onset of darkness directly to the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109(44):17765-9. Abstract
Synchronization of the circadian clock in cyanobacteria with the day/night cycle proceeds without an obvious photoreceptor, leaving open the question of its specific mechanism. The circadian oscillator can be reconstituted in vitro, where the activities of two of its proteins, KaiA and KaiC, are affected by metabolites that reflect photosynthetic activity: KaiC phosphorylation is directly influenced by the ATP/ADP ratio, and KaiA stimulation of KaiC phosphorylation is blocked by oxidized, but not reduced, quinones. Manipulation of the ATP/ADP ratio can reset the timing of KaiC phosphorylation peaks in the reconstituted in vitro oscillator. Here, we show that pulses of oxidized quinones reset the cyanobacterial circadian clock both in vitro and in vivo. Onset of darkness causes an abrupt oxidation of the plastoquinone pool in vivo, which is in contrast to a gradual decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio that falls over the course of hours until the onset of light. Thus, these two metabolic measures of photosynthetic activity act in concert to signal both the onset and duration of darkness to the cyanobacterial clock.
Zhang, Y, Feng Y, Chatterjee S, Tuske S, Ho MX, Arnold E, Ebright RH.  2012.  Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation.. Science (New York, N.Y.). 338(6110):1076-1080. AbstractWebsite
During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase (RNAP) binds and unwinds promoter DNA to form an RNAP-promoter open complex. We have determined crystal structures at 2.9 and 3.0 Å resolution of functional transcription initiation complexes comprising Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase, σ(A), and a promoter DNA fragment corresponding to the transcription bubble and downstream dsDNA of the RNAP-promoter open complex. The structures show that σ recognizes the -10 element and discriminator element through interactions that include the unstacking and insertion into pockets of three DNA bases, and that RNAP recognizes the -4/+2 region through interactions that include the unstacking and insertion into a pocket of the +2 base. The structures further show that interactions between σ and template-strand ssDNA preorganize template-strand ssDNA to engage the RNAP active center.
Wang, Q., Dooner HK.  2012.  Dynamic evolution of bz orthologous regions in the Andropogoneae and other grasses.. The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology. 72(2):212-21. Abstract
Genome structure exhibits remarkable plasticity within Zea mays. To examine how haplotype structure has evolved within the Andropogoneae tribe, we have analyzed the bz gene-rich region of maize (Zea mays), the Zea teosintes mays ssp. mexicana, luxurians and diploperennis, Tripsacum dactyloides, Coix lacryma-jobi and Sorghum propinquum. We sequenced and annotated BAC clones from these species and re-annotated the orthologous Sorghum bicolor region. Gene colinearity in the region is well conserved within the genus Zea. However, the orthologous regions of Coix and Sorghum exhibited several micro-rearrangements relative to Zea, including addition, truncation and deletion of genes. The stc1 gene, involved in the production of a terpenoid insect defense signal, is evolving particularly fast, and its progressive disappearance from some species is occurring by microhomology-mediated recombination. LTR retrotransposons are the main contributors to the dynamic evolution of the bz region. Common transposon insertion sites occur among haplotypes from different Zea mays sub-species, but not outside the species. As in Zea, different patterns of interspersion between genes and retrotransposons are observed in Sorghum. We estimate that the mean divergence times between maize and Tripsacum, Coix and Sorghum are 8.5, 12.1 and 12.4 million years ago, respectively, and that between Coix and Sorghum is 9.3 million years ago. A comparison of the bz orthologous regions of Zea, Sorghum and Coix with those of Brachypodium, Setaria and Oryza allows us to infer how the region has evolved by addition and deletion of genes in the approximately 50 million years since these genera diverged from a common progenitor.
Ananyev, GM, Skizim NJ, Dismukes CG.  2012.  Enhancing biological hydrogen production from cyanobacteria by removal of excreted products.. Journal of biotechnology. 162(1):97-104. Abstract
Hydrogen is produced by a [NiFe]-hydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima during autofermentation of photosynthetically accumulated glycogen under dark anaerobic conditions. Herein we show that elimination of H₂ backpressure by continuous H₂ removal ("milking") can significantly increase the yield of H₂ in this strain. We show that "milking" by continuous selective consumption of H₂ using an electrochemical cell produces the maximum increase in H₂ yield (11-fold) and H₂ rate (3.4-fold), which is considerably larger than through "milking" by non-selective dilution of the biomass in media (increases H₂ yield 3.7-fold and rate 3.1-fold). Exhaustive autofermentation under electrochemical milking conditions consumes >98% of glycogen and 27.6% of biomass over 7-8 days and extracts 39% of the energy content in glycogen as H₂. Non-selective dilution stimulates H₂ production by shifting intracellular equilibria competing for NADH from excreted products and terminal electron sinks into H₂ production. Adding a mixture of the carbon fermentative products shifts the equilibria towards reactants, resulting in increased intracellular NADH and an increased H₂ yield (1.4-fold). H₂ production is sustained for a period of time up to 7days, after which the PSII activity of the cells decreases by 80-90%, but can be restored by regeneration under photoautotrophic growth.
Liao, JC, Messing J.  2012.  Energy biotechnology. Current opinion in biotechnology. 23(3):287-9.Website
Calviño, M, Messing J.  2012.  Sweet sorghum as a model system for bioenergy crops.. Current opinion in biotechnology. 23(3):323-9. AbstractWebsite
Bioenergy is the reduction of carbon via photosynthesis. Currently, this energy is harvested as liquid fuel through fermentation. A major concern, however, is input cost, in particular use of excess water and nitrogen, derived from an energy-negative process, the Haber-Bosch method. Furthermore, the shortage of arable land creates competition between uses for food and fuel, resulting in increased living expenses. This review seeks to summarize recent knowledge in genetics, genomics, and gene expression of a rising model species for bioenergy applications, sorghum. Its diploid genome has been sequenced, it has favorable low-input cost traits, and genetic crosses between different cultivars can be used to study allelic variations of genes involved in stem sugar metabolism and incremental biomass.
Kolling, DR, Cox N, Ananyev GM, Pace RJ, Dismukes CG.  2012.  What are the oxidation states of manganese required to catalyze photosynthetic water oxidation? Biophysical journal. 103(2):313-22. Abstract
Photosynthetic O(2) production from water is catalyzed by a cluster of four manganese ions and a tyrosine residue that comprise the redox-active components of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) of photosystem II (PSII) in all known oxygenic phototrophs. Knowledge of the oxidation states is indispensable for understanding the fundamental principles of catalysis by PSII and the catalytic mechanism of the WOC. Previous spectroscopic studies and redox titrations predicted the net oxidation state of the S(0) state to be (Mn(III))(3)Mn(IV). We have refined a previously developed photoassembly procedure that directly determines the number of oxidizing equivalents needed to assemble the Mn(4)Ca core of WOC during photoassembly, starting from free Mn(II) and the Mn-depleted apo-WOC complex. This experiment entails counting the number of light flashes required to produce the first O(2) molecules during photoassembly. Unlike spectroscopic methods, this process does not require reference to synthetic model complexes. We find the number of photoassembly intermediates required to reach the lowest oxidation state of the WOC, S(0), to be three, indicating a net oxidation state three equivalents above four Mn(II), formally (Mn(III))(3)Mn(II), whereas the O(2) releasing state, S(4), corresponds formally to (Mn(IV))(3)Mn(III). The results from this study have major implications for proposed mechanisms of photosynthetic water oxidation.
Skizim, NJ, Ananyev GM, Krishnan A, Dismukes CG.  2012.  Metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by nitrogenase- and hydrogenase-containing unicellular cyanobacteria Cyanothece.. The Journal of biological chemistry. 287(4):2777-86. Abstract
Current biotechnological interest in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria stems from their robust respiration and capacity to produce hydrogen. Here we quantify both dark- and light-induced H(2) effluxes by Cyanothece sp. Miami BG 043511 and establish their respective origins. Dark, anoxic H(2) production occurs via hydrogenase utilizing reductant from glycolytic catabolism of carbohydrates (autofermentation). Photo-H(2) is shown to occur via nitrogenase and requires illumination of PSI, whereas production of O(2) by co-illumination of PSII is inhibitory to nitrogenase above a threshold pO(2). Carbohydrate also serves as the major source of reductant for the PSI pathway mediated via nonphotochemical reduction of the plastoquinone pool by NADH dehydrogenases type-1 and type-2 (NDH-1 and NDH-2). Redirection of this reductant flux exclusively through the proton-coupled NDH-1 by inhibition of NDH-2 with flavone increases the photo-H(2) production rate by 2-fold (at the expense of the dark-H(2) rate), due to production of additional ATP (via the proton gradient). Comparison of photobiological hydrogen rates, yields, and energy conversion efficiencies reveals opportunities for improvement.
Berdygulova, Z, Esyunina D, Miropolskaya N, Mukhamedyarov D, Kuznedelov K, Nickels BE, Severinov K, Kulbachinskiy A, Minakhin L.  2012.  A novel phage-encoded transcription antiterminator acts by suppressing bacterial RNA polymerase pausing.. Nucleic Acids Research. Abstract
Gp39, a small protein encoded by Thermus thermophilus phage P23-45, specifically binds the host RNA polymerase (RNAP) and inhibits transcription initiation. Here, we demonstrate that gp39 also acts as an antiterminator during transcription through intrinsic terminators. The antitermination activity of gp39 relies on its ability to suppress transcription pausing at poly(U) tracks. Gp39 also accelerates transcription elongation by decreasing RNAP pausing and backtracking but does not significantly affect the rates of catalysis of individual reactions in the RNAP active center. We mapped the RNAP-gp39 interaction site to the β flap, a domain that forms a part of the RNA exit channel and is also a likely target for λ phage antiterminator proteins Q and N, and for bacterial elongation factor NusA. However, in contrast to Q and N, gp39 does not depend on NusA or other auxiliary factors for its activity. To our knowledge, gp39 is the first characterized phage-encoded transcription factor that affects every step of the transcription cycle and suppresses transcription termination through its antipausing activity.
Nguyen, TA, Brescic J, Vinyard DJ, Chandrasekar T, Dismukes CG.  2012.  Identification of an oxygenic reaction center psbADC operon in the cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421.. Molecular biology and evolution. 29(1):35-8. Abstract
Gloeobacter violaceus, the earliest diverging oxyphotobacterium (cyanobacterium) on the 16S ribosomal RNA tree, has five copies of the photosystem II psbA gene encoding the D1 reaction center protein subunit. These copies are widely distributed throughout the 4.6 Mbp genome with only one copy colocalizing with other PSII subunits, in marked contrast to all other psbA genes in all publicly available sequenced genomes. A clustering of two other psb genes around psbA3 (glr2322) is unique to Gloeobacter. We provide experimental proof for the transcription of a psbA3DC operon, encoding three of the five reaction center core subunits (D1, D2, and CP43). This is the first example of a transcribed gene cluster containing the D1/D2 or D1/D2/CP43 subunits of PSII in an oxygenic phototroph (prokaryotic or eukaryotic). Implications for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis are discussed.
Gardner, GP, Go Y B, Robinson DM, Smith PF, Hadermann J, Abakumov A, Greenblatt M, Dismukes CG.  2012.  Structural requirements in lithium cobalt oxides for the catalytic oxidation of water.. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English). 51(7):1616-9.
Srivastava, A, Degen D, Ebright YW, Ebright RH.  2012.  Frequency, Spectrum, and Nonzero Fitness Costs of Resistance to Myxopyronin in Staphylococcus aureus.. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 56(12):6250-5. Abstract
The antibiotic myxopyronin (Myx) functions by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). The binding site on RNAP for Myx-the RNAP "switch region SW1/SW2 subregion"-is different from the binding site on RNAP for the RNAP inhibitor currently used in broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy, rifampin (Rif). Here, we report the frequency, spectrum, and fitness costs of Myx resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The resistance rate for Myx is 4 × 10(-8) to 7 × 10(-8) per generation, which is equal within error to the resistance rate for Rif (3 × 10(-8) to 10 × 10(-8) per generation). Substitutions conferring Myx resistance were obtained in the RNAP β subunit [six substitutions: V1080(1275)I, V1080(1275)L, E1084(1279)K, D1101(1296)E, S1127(1322)L, and S1127(1322)P] and the RNAP β' subunit [five substitutions: K334(345)N, T925(917)K, T925(917)R, G1172(1354)C, and G1172(1354)D] (residues numbered as in Staphylococcus aureus RNAP and, in parentheses, as in Escherichia coli RNAP). Sites of substitutions conferring Myx resistance map to the RNAP switch region SW1/SW2 subregion and do not overlap the binding site on RNAP for Rif, and, correspondingly, Myx-resistant mutants exhibit no cross-resistance to Rif. All substitutions conferring Myx resistance exhibit significant fitness costs (4 to 15% per generation). In contrast, at least three substitutions conferring Rif resistance exhibit no fitness costs (≤0% per generation). The observation that all Myx-resistant mutants have significant fitness costs whereas at least three Rif-resistant mutants have no fitness costs, together with the previously established inverse correlation between fitness cost and clinical prevalence, suggests that Myx resistance is likely to have lower clinical prevalence than Rif resistance.
Chakraborty, A, Wang D, Ebright YW, Korlann Y, Kortkhonjia E, Kim T, Chowdhury S, Wigneshweraraj S, Irschik H, Jansen R et al..  2012.  Opening and closing of the bacterial RNA polymerase clamp.. Science (New York, N.Y.). 337(6094):591-5. AbstractWebsite
Using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we have defined bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) clamp conformation at each step in transcription initiation and elongation. We find that the clamp predominantly is open in free RNAP and early intermediates in transcription initiation but closes upon formation of a catalytically competent transcription initiation complex and remains closed during initial transcription and transcription elongation. We show that four RNAP inhibitors interfere with clamp opening. We propose that clamp opening allows DNA to be loaded into and unwound in the RNAP active-center cleft, that DNA loading and unwinding trigger clamp closure, and that clamp closure accounts for the high stability of initiation complexes and the high stability and processivity of elongation complexes.
Wu, Y, Wang W, Messing J.  2012.  Balancing of sulfur storage in maize seed. BMC plant biology. 12:77. AbstractWebsite
A balanced composition of amino acids in seed flour is critical because of the demand on essential amino acids for nutrition. However, seed proteins in cereals like maize, the crop with the highest yield, are low in lysine, tryptophan, and methionine. Although supplementation with legumes like soybean can compensate lysine deficiency, both crops are also relatively low in methionine. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of methionine accumulation in the seed could be a basis for breeding cultivars with superior nutritional quality.
Wang, W, Wu Y, Messing J.  2012.  The Mitochondrial Genome of an Aquatic Plant, Spirodela polyrhiza.. PloS one. 7(10):e46747. AbstractWebsite
Spirodela polyrhiza is a species of the order Alismatales, which represent the basal lineage of monocots with more ancestral features than the Poales. Its complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome could provide clues for the understanding of the evolution of mt genomes in plant.
Severinov, K, Nair S.  2012.  The action of microcin C and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to it. Future Microbiol. 7:281-289.
Wang, W, Messing J.  2012.  Analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase expression during turion formation induced by abscisic acid in Spirodela polyrhiza (greater duckweed). BMC Plant Biol. 12:5. AbstractWebsite
BACKGROUND: Aquatic plants differ in their development from terrestrial plants in their morphology and physiology, but little is known about the molecular basis of the major phases of their life cycle. Interestingly, in place of seeds of terrestrial plants their dormant phase is represented by turions, which circumvents sexual reproduction. However, like seeds turions provide energy storage for starting the next growing season. RESULTS: To begin a characterization of the transition from the growth to the dormant phase we used abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, to induce controlled turion formation in Spirodela polyrhiza and investigated their differentiation from fronds, representing their growth phase, into turions with respect to morphological, ultra-structural characteristics, and starch content. Turions were rich in anthocyanin pigmentation and had a density that submerged them to the bottom of liquid medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of turions showed in comparison to fronds shrunken vacuoles, smaller intercellular space, and abundant starch granules surrounded by thylakoid membranes. Turions accumulated more than 60% starch in dry mass after two weeks of ABA treatment. To further understand the mechanism of the developmental switch from fronds to turions, we cloned and sequenced the genes of three large-subunit ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (APLs). All three putative protein and exon sequences were conserved, but the corresponding genomic sequences were extremely variable mainly due to the invasion of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) into introns. A molecular three-dimensional model of the SpAPLs was consistent with their regulatory mechanism in the interaction with the substrate (ATP) and allosteric activator (3-PGA) to permit conformational changes of its structure. Gene expression analysis revealed that each gene was associated with distinct temporal expression during turion formation. APL2 and APL3 were highly expressed in earlier stages of turion development, while APL1 expression was reduced throughout turion development. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the differential expression of APLs could be used to enhance energy flow from photosynthesis to storage of carbon in aquatic plants, making duckweeds a useful alternative biofuel feedstock.