Gardner, G, Al-Sharab J, Danilovic N, Go Y B, Ayers KE, Greenblatt M, Dismukes G C.  2015.  Structural Basis for Differing Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation by the Cubic, Layered and Spinel Forms of Lithium Cobalt Oxides. Energy Environ. Sci.. :-. AbstractWebsite
The two polymorphs of lithium cobalt oxide, LiCoO2, present an opportunity to contrast the structural requirements for reversible charge storage (battery function) vs catalysis of water oxidation/oxygen evolution (OER; 2H2O[rightward arrow]O2 + 4H+ + 4e- ). Previously, we reported high OER electrocatalytic activity from nanocrystals of the cubic phase vs. poor activity from the layered phase - the archetypal lithium-ion battery cathode. Here we apply transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, voltammetry and elemental analysis under OER electrolysis condition to show that labile Li+ ions (de)intercalate from layered LiCoO2, initiating structural reorganization to the cubic spinel LiCo2O4, in parallel with formation of an active catalytic phase. Comparison of cubic LiCoO2 (50nm) to iridium (5 nm) nanoparticles for OER catalysis (commercial benchmark) in basic and neutral electrolyte reveals excellent performance in terms of Tafel slope (48 mV dec-1), overpotential ([small eta] =  420 mV @ 10 mA cm-2 at pH = 14), Faradic yield (100%) and OER stability (no loss in 14 hours). The inherent OER activity of cubic LiCoO2 and spinel LiCo2O4 is attributable to their [Co4O4]n+ cubane structural units, which provides lower oxidation potential to Co4+ and lower inter-cubane hole mobility. By contrast, the layered phase which lacks cubanes exhibits extensive intra-planar hole delocalization which entropically disfavors the four electron/hole concerted OER reaction.
Deibert, BJ, Zhang J, Smith PF, Chapman KW, Rangan S, Banerjee D, Tan K, Wang H, Pasguale N, Chen F et al..  2015.  Surface and Structural Investigation of a MnOx Birnessite-Type Water Oxidation Catalyst Formed under Photocatalytic Conditions. Chemistry. 21(40):14218-14228. Abstract
Catalytically active MnOx species have been reported to form in situ from various Mn-complexes during electrocatalytic and solution-based water oxidation when employing cerium(IV) ammonium ammonium nitrate (CAN) oxidant as a sacrificial reagent. The full structural characterization of these oxides may be complicated by the presence of support material and lack of a pure bulk phase. For the first time, we show that highly active MnOx catalysts form without supports in situ under photocatalytic conditions. Our most active (4)MnOx catalyst (∼0.84 mmol O2  mol Mn(-1) s(-1)) forms from a Mn4O4 bearing a metal-organic framework. (4)MnOx is characterized by pair distribution function analysis (PDF), Raman spectroscopy, and HR-TEM as a disordered, layered Mn-oxide with high surface area (216 m(2) g(-1)) and small regions of crystallinity and layer flexibility. In contrast, the (S)MnOx formed from Mn(2+) salt gives an amorphous species of lower surface area (80 m(2) g(-1)) and lower activity (∼0.15 mmol O2  mol Mn(-1) s(-1)). We compare these catalysts to crystalline hexagonal birnessite, which activates under the same conditions. Full deconvolution of the XPS Mn2p3/2 core levels detects enriched Mn(3+) and Mn(2+) content on the surfaces, which indicates possible disproportionation/comproportionation surface equilibria.
Ramsey, KM, Osborne ML, Vvedenskaya IO, Su C, Nickels BE, Dove SL.  2015.  Ubiquitous promoter-localization of essential virulence regulators in Francisella tularensis.. PLoS Pathog. 11(4):e1004793.
Smith, PF, Hunt L, Laursen AB, Sagar V, Kaushik S, Calvinho KU, Marotta G, Mosconi E, De Angelis F, Dismukes GC.  2015.  Water Oxidation by the [Co4O4(OAc)4(py)4](+) Cubium is Initiated by OH(-) Addition.. J Am Chem Soc. 137(49):15460-15468. Abstract
The cobalt cubium Co4O4(OAc)4(py)4(ClO4) (1A(+)) containing the mixed valence [Co4O4](5+) core is shown by multiple spectroscopic methods to react with hydroxide (OH(-)) but not with water molecules to produce O2. The yield of reaction products is stoichiometric (>99.5%): 41A(+) + 4OH(-) → O2 + 2H2O + 41A. By contrast, the structurally homologous cubium Co4O4(trans-OAc)2(bpy)4(ClO4)3, 1B(ClO4)3, produces no O2. EPR/NMR spectroscopies show clean conversion to cubane 1A during O2 evolution with no Co(2+) or Co3O4 side products. Mass spectrometry of the reaction between isotopically labeled μ-(16)O(bridging-oxo) 1A(+) and (18)O-bicarbonate/water shows (1) no exchange of (18)O into the bridging oxos of 1A(+), and (2) (36)O2 is the major product, thus requiring two OH(-) in the reactive intermediate. DFT calculations of solvated intermediates suggest that addition of two OH(-) to 1A(+) via OH(-) insertion into Co-OAc bonds is energetically favored, followed by outer-sphere oxidation to intermediate [1A(OH)2](0). The absence of O2 production by cubium 1B(3+) indicates the reactive intermediate derived from 1A(+) requires gem-1,1-dihydoxo stereochemistry to perform O-O bond formation. Outer-sphere oxidation of this intermediate by 2 equiv of 1A(+) accounts for the final stoichiometry. Collectively, these results and recent literature (Faraday Discuss., doi:10.1039/C5FD00076A and J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 12865-12872) validate the [Co4O4](4+/5+) cubane core as an intrinsic catalyst for oxidation of hydroxide by an inner-sphere mechanism.
Sun, S, Reddy BVVG, Irvine KD.  2015.  Localization of Hippo Signaling complexes and Warts activation in vivo. Nature Communications. 6:8402.
Durst, R, Peal DS, deVlaming A, Leyne M, Talkowski M, Perrocheau M, Simpson C, Jett C, Stone MR, Charles F et al..  2015.  Mutations in DCHS1 Cause Mitral Valve Prolapse. Nature. :inpress.
Wang, W, Zhang W, Wu Y, Maliga P, Messing J.  2015.  RNA Editing in Chloroplasts of Spirodela polyrhiza, an Aquatic Monocotelydonous Species. PLoS One. 10:e0140285. AbstractWebsite
RNA editing is the post-transcriptional conversion from C to U before translation, providing a unique feature in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we used a robust and efficient method based on RNA-seq from non-ribosomal total RNA to simultaneously measure chloroplast-gene expression and RNA editing efficiency in the Greater Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, a species that provides a new reference for the phylogenetic studies of monocotyledonous plants. We identified 66 editing sites at the genome-wide level, with an average editing efficiency of 76%. We found that the expression levels of chloroplast genes were relatively constant, but 11 RNA editing sites show significant changes in editing efficiency, when fronds turn into turions. Thus, RNA editing efficiency contributes more to the yield of translatable transcripts than steady state mRNA levels. Comparison of RNA editing sites in coconut, Spirodela, maize, and rice suggests that RNA editing originated from a common ancestor.
Lang, Z, Wills DM, Lemmon ZH, Shannon LM, Bukowski R, Wu Y, Messing J, Doebley JF.  2014.  Defining the Role of prolamin-box binding factor1 Gene During Maize Domestication. J Hered. AbstractWebsite
The prolamin-box binding factor1 (pbf1) gene encodes a transcription factor that controls the expression of seed storage protein (zein) genes in maize. Prior studies show that pbf1 underwent selection during maize domestication although how it affected trait change during domestication is unknown. To assay how pbf1 affects phenotypic differences between maize and teosinte, we compared nearly isogenic lines (NILs) that differ for a maize versus teosinte allele of pbf1. Kernel weight for the teosinte NIL (162mg) is slightly but significantly greater than that for the maize NIL (156mg). RNAseq data for developing kernels show that the teosinte allele of pbf1 is expressed at about twice the level of the maize allele. However, RNA and protein assays showed no difference in zein profile between the two NILs. The lower expression for the maize pbf1 allele suggests that selection may have favored this change; however, how reduced pbf1 expression alters phenotype remains unknown. One possibility is that pbf1 regulates genes other than zeins and thereby is a domestication trait. The observed drop in seed weight associated with the maize allele of pbf1 is counterintuitive but could represent a negative pleiotropic effect of selection on some other aspect of kernel composition.
Zakaria, S, Mao Y, Kuta A, Ferreira de Sousa C, Gaufo GO, Mcneill H, Hindges R, Guthrie S, Irvine KD, Francis-West PH.  2014.  Regulation of neuronal migration by dchs1-fat4 planar cell polarity.. Current biology : CB. 24:1620-1627. AbstractWebsite
Planar cell polarity (PCP) describes the polarization of cell structures and behaviors within the plane of a tissue. PCP is essential for the generation of tissue architecture during embryogenesis and for postnatal growth and tissue repair, yet how it is oriented to coordinate cell polarity remains poorly understood [1]. In Drosophila, PCP is mediated via the Frizzled-Flamingo (Fz-PCP) and Dachsous-Fat (Fat-PCP) pathways [1-3]. Fz-PCP is conserved in vertebrates, but an understanding in vertebrates of whether and how Fat-PCP polarizes cells, and its relationship to Fz-PCP signaling, is lacking. Mutations in human FAT4 and DCHS1, key components of Fat-PCP signaling, cause Van Maldergem syndrome, characterized by severe neuronal abnormalities indicative of altered neuronal migration [4]. Here, we investigate the role and mechanisms of Fat-PCP during neuronal migration using the murine facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons as a model. We find that Fat4 and Dchs1 are expressed in complementary gradients and are required for the collective tangential migration of FBM neurons and for their PCP. Fat4 and Dchs1 are required intrinsically within the FBM neurons and extrinsically within the neuroepithelium. Remarkably, Fat-PCP and Fz-PCP regulate FBM neuron migration along orthogonal axes. Disruption of the Dchs1 gradients by mosaic inactivation of Dchs1 alters FBM neuron polarity and migration. This study implies that PCP in vertebrates can be regulated via gradients of Fat4 and Dchs1 expression, which establish intracellular polarity across FBM cells during their migration. Our results also identify Fat-PCP as a novel neuronal guidance system and reveal that Fat-PCP and Fz-PCP can act along orthogonal axes.
Oh, H, Slattery M, Ma L, White KP, Mann RS, Irvine KD.  2014.  Yorkie Promotes Transcription by Recruiting a Histone Methyltransferase Complex.. Cell reports. AbstractWebsite
Hippo signaling limits organ growth by inhibiting the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. Despite the key role of Yorkie in both normal and oncogenic growth, the mechanism by which it activates transcription has not been defined. We report that Yorkie binding to chromatin correlates with histone H3K4 methylation and is sufficient to locally increase it. We show that Yorkie can recruit a histone methyltransferase complex through binding between WW domains of Yorkie and PPxY sequence motifs of NcoA6, a subunit of the Trithorax-related (Trr) methyltransferase complex. Cell culture and in vivo assays establish that this recruitment of NcoA6 contributes to Yorkie's ability to activate transcription. Mammalian NcoA6, a subunit of Trr-homologous methyltransferase complexes, can similarly interact with Yorkie's mammalian homolog YAP. Our results implicate direct recruitment of a histone methyltransferase complex as central to transcriptional activation by Yorkie, linking the control of cell proliferation by Hippo signaling to chromatin modification.
Rauskolb, C, Sun S, Sun G, Pan Y, Irvine KD.  2014.  Cytoskeletal Tension Inhibits Hippo Signaling through an Ajuba-Warts Complex.. Cell. 158:143-156. AbstractWebsite
Mechanical forces have been proposed to modulate organ growth, but a molecular mechanism that links them to growth regulation in vivo has been lacking. We report that increasing tension within the cytoskeleton increases Drosophila wing growth, whereas decreasing cytoskeletal tension decreases wing growth. These changes in growth can be accounted for by changes in the activity of Yorkie, a transcription factor regulated by the Hippo pathway. The influence of myosin activity on Yorkie depends genetically on the Ajuba LIM protein Jub, a negative regulator of Warts within the Hippo pathway. We further show that Jub associates with α-catenin and that its localization to adherens junctions and association with α-catenin are promoted by cytoskeletal tension. Jub recruits Warts to junctions in a tension-dependent manner. Our observations delineate a mechanism that links cytoskeletal tension to regulation of Hippo pathway activity, providing a molecular understanding of how mechanical forces can modulate organ growth.
Zhang, W, Ciclitira P, Messing J.  2014.  PacBio sequencing of gene families - a case study with wheat gluten genes. Gene. 533:541-6. AbstractWebsite
Amino acids in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds mainly accumulate in storage proteins called gliadins and glutenins. Gliadins contain alpha/beta-, gamma- and omega-types whereas glutenins contain HMW- and LMW-types. Known gliadin and glutenin sequences were largely determined through cloning and sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. This time-consuming process prevents us to intensively study the variation of each orthologous gene copy among cultivars. The throughput and sequencing length of Pacific Bioscience RS (PacBio) single molecule sequencing platform make it feasible to construct contiguous and non-chimeric RNA sequences. We assembled 424 wheat storage protein transcripts from ten wheat cultivars by using just one single-molecule-real-time cell. The protein genes from wheat cultivar Chinese Spring are comparable to known sequences from NCBI. We demonstrated real-time sequencing of gene families with high-throughput and low-cost. This method can be applied to studies of gene amplification and copy number variation among species and cultivars.
Gordon, SP, Priest H, Des Marais DL, Schackwitz W, Figueroa M, Martin J, Bragg JN, Tyler L, Lee CR, Bryant D et al..  2014.  Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines. Plant J. 79:361-74. AbstractWebsite
Brachypodium distachyon is small annual grass that has been adopted as a model for the grasses. Its small genome, high-quality reference genome, large germplasm collection, and selfing nature make it an excellent subject for studies of natural variation. We sequenced six divergent lines to identify a comprehensive set of polymorphisms and analyze their distribution and concordance with gene expression. Multiple methods and controls were utilized to identify polymorphisms and validate their quality. mRNA-Seq experiments under control and simulated drought-stress conditions, identified 300 genes with a genotype-dependent treatment response. We showed that large-scale sequence variants had extremely high concordance with altered expression of hundreds of genes, including many with genotype-dependent treatment responses. We generated a deep mRNA-Seq dataset for the most divergent line and created a de novo transcriptome assembly. This led to the discovery of >2400 previously unannotated transcripts and hundreds of genes not present in the reference genome. We built a public database for visualization and investigation of sequence variants among these widely used inbred lines.
Wang, W, Haberer G, Gundlach H, Gläßer C, Nussbaumer T, Luo MC, Lomsadze A, Borodovsky M, Kerstetter RA, Shanklin J et al..  2014.  The Spirodela polyrhiza genome reveals insights into its neotenous reduction fast growth and aquatic lifestyle. 5 AbstractWebsite
The subfamily of the Lemnoideae belongs to a different order than other monocotyledonous species that have been sequenced and comprises aquatic plants that grow rapidly on the water surface. Here we select Spirodela polyrhiza for whole-genome sequencing. We show that Spirodela has a genome with no signs of recent retrotranspositions but signatures of two ancient whole-genome duplications, possibly 95 million years ago (mya), older than those in Arabidopsis and rice. Its genome has only 19,623 predicted protein-coding genes, which is 28% less than the dicotyledonous Arabidopsis thaliana and 50% less than monocotyledonous rice. We propose that at least in part, the neotenous reduction of these aquatic plants is based on readjusted copy numbers of promoters and repressors of the juvenile-to-adult transition. The Spirodela genome, along with its unique biology and physiology, will stimulate new insights into environmental adaptation, ecology, evolution and plant development, and will be instrumental for future bioenergy applications.
Dooner, HK, He L.  2014.  Polarized gene conversion at the bz locus of maize.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111(38):13918-23. Abstract
Nucleotide diversity is greater in maize than in most organisms studied to date, so allelic pairs in a hybrid tend to be highly polymorphic. Most recombination events between such pairs of maize polymorphic alleles are crossovers. However, intragenic recombination events not associated with flanking marker exchange, corresponding to noncrossover gene conversions, predominate between alleles derived from the same progenitor. In these dimorphic heterozygotes, the two alleles differ only at the two mutant sites between which recombination is being measured. To investigate whether gene conversion at the bz locus is polarized, two large diallel crossing matrices involving mutant sites spread across the bz gene were performed and more than 2,500 intragenic recombinants were scored. In both diallels, around 90% of recombinants could be accounted for by gene conversion. Furthermore, conversion exhibited a striking polarity, with sites located within 150 bp of the start and stop codons converting more frequently than sites located in the middle of the gene. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to recent data from genome-wide studies in other plants.
Carrell TG, Smith PF, Dennes J, Dismukes CG.  2014.  Entropy and enthalpy contributions to the kinetics of proton coupled electron transfer to the Mn4O4(O2PPh2)6 cubane.. Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP. 16(24):11843-7. Abstract
The dependence of rate, entropy of activation, and ((1)H/(2)H) kinetic isotope effect for H-atom transfer from a series of p-substituted phenols to cubane Mn4O4L6 (L = O2PPh2) () reveals the activation energy to form the transition state is proportional to the phenolic O-H bond dissociation energy. New implications for water oxidation and charge recombination in photosystem II are described.
Barr, MM, Silva M, Haas LA, Morsci NS, Nguyen KCQ, Hall DH, Barr MM.  2014.  C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication.. Current biology : CB. 24(5):519-25. Abstract
Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to the small size (100 nm) of the ECVs. We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies. Intraflagellar transport and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail-chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating-related behaviors.
Vinyard, DJ, Gimpel J, Ananyev GM, Mayfield SP, Dismukes CG.  2014.  Engineered Photosystem II reaction centers optimize photochemistry versus photoprotection at different solar intensities.. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 136(10):4048-55. Abstract
The D1 protein of Photosystem II (PSII) provides most of the ligating amino acid residues for the Mn4CaO5 water-oxidizing complex (WOC) and half of the reaction center cofactors, and it is present as two isoforms in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. These isoforms, D1:1 and D1:2, confer functional advantages for photosynthetic growth at low and high light intensities, respectively. D1:1, D1:2, and seven point mutations in the D1:2 background that are native to D1:1 were expressed in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We used these nine strains to show that those strains that confer a higher yield of PSII charge separation under light-limiting conditions (where charge recombination is significant) have less efficient photochemical turnover, measured in terms of both a lower WOC turnover probability and a longer WOC cycle period. Conversely, these same strains under light saturation (where charge recombination does not compete) confer a correspondingly faster O2 evolution rate and greater protection against photoinhibition. Taken together, the data clearly establish that PSII primary charge separation is a trade-off between photochemical productivity (water oxidation and plastoquinone reduction) and charge recombination (photoprotection). These trade-offs add up to a significant growth advantage for the two natural isoforms. These insights provide fundamental design principles for engineering of PSII reaction centers with optimal photochemical efficiencies for growth at low versus high light intensities.
Vvedenskaya, IO, Vahedian-Movahed H, Bird JG, Knoblauch JG, Goldman SR, Zhang Y, Ebright RH, Nickels BE.  2014.  Interactions between RNA polymerase and the "core recognition element" counteract pausing. Science. 344(6189):1285-1289. Abstract
Transcription elongation is interrupted by sequences that inhibit nucleotide addition and cause RNA polymerase (RNAP) to pause. Here, by use of native elongating transcript sequencing (NET-seq) and a variant of NET-seq that enables analysis of mutant RNAP derivatives in merodiploid cells (mNET-seq), we analyze transcriptional pausing genome-wide in vivo in Escherichia coli. We identify a consensus pause-inducing sequence element, G₋₁₀Y₋₁G(+1) (where -1 corresponds to the position of the RNA 3' end). We demonstrate that sequence-specific interactions between RNAP core enzyme and a core recognition element (CRE) that stabilize transcription initiation complexes also occur in transcription elongation complexes and facilitate pause read-through by stabilizing RNAP in a posttranslocated register. Our findings identify key sequence determinants of transcriptional pausing and establish that RNAP-CRE interactions modulate pausing.
Vvedenskaya, IO, Vahedian-Movahed H, Bird JG, Knoblauch JG, Goldman SR, Zhang Y, Ebright RH, Nickels BE.  2014.  Transcription. Interactions between RNA polymerase and the "core recognition element" counteract pausing.. Science (New York, N.Y.). 344(6189):1285-9. AbstractWebsite
Transcription elongation is interrupted by sequences that inhibit nucleotide addition and cause RNA polymerase (RNAP) to pause. Here, by use of native elongating transcript sequencing (NET-seq) and a variant of NET-seq that enables analysis of mutant RNAP derivatives in merodiploid cells (mNET-seq), we analyze transcriptional pausing genome-wide in vivo in Escherichia coli. We identify a consensus pause-inducing sequence element, G₋₁₀Y₋₁G(+1) (where -1 corresponds to the position of the RNA 3' end). We demonstrate that sequence-specific interactions between RNAP core enzyme and a core recognition element (CRE) that stabilize transcription initiation complexes also occur in transcription elongation complexes and facilitate pause read-through by stabilizing RNAP in a posttranslocated register. Our findings identify key sequence determinants of transcriptional pausing and establish that RNAP-CRE interactions modulate pausing.
McNeely, K, Kumaraswamy KG, Guerra T, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Dismukes CG.  2014.  Metabolic switching of central carbon metabolism in response to nitrate: Application to autofermentative hydrogen production in cyanobacteria.. Journal of biotechnology. 182-183:83-91. Abstract
Nitrate removal from culture media is widely used to enhance autofermentative hydrogen production in cyanobacteria during dark anaerobiosis. Here we have performed a systematic inventory of carbon and nitrogen metabolites, redox pools, and excreted product fluxes which show that addition of nitrate to cultures of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 has no influence on glycogen catabolic rate, but shifts the distribution of excreted products from predominantly lactate and H2 to predominantly CO2 and nitrite, while increasing the total consumption of intracellular reducing equivalents (mainly glycogen) by 3-fold. Together with LC-MS derived metabolite pool sizes these data show that glycogen catabolism is redirected from the upper-glycolytic (EMP) pathway to the oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway upon nitrate addition. This metabolic switch in carbon catabolism is shown to temporally correlate with the pyridine nucleotide redox-poise (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+)) and demonstrates the reductant availability controls H2 evolution in cyanobacteria.
Vorobiev, SM, Gensler Y, Vahedian-Movahed H, Seetharaman J, Su M, Huang JY, Xiao R, Kornhaber G, Montelione GT, Tong L et al..  2014.  Structure of the DNA-Binding and RNA-Polymerase-Binding Region of Transcription Antitermination Factor λQ.. Structure . 22:485-495. Abstract
The bacteriophage λ Q protein is a transcription antitermination factor that controls expression of the phage late genes as a stable component of the transcription elongation complex. To join the elongation complex, λQ binds a specific DNA sequence element and interacts with RNA polymerase that is paused during early elongation. λQ binds to the paused early-elongation complex through interactions between λQ and two regions of RNA polymerase: region 4 of the σ(70) subunit and the flap region of the β subunit. We present the 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of a portion of λQ containing determinants for interaction with DNA, interaction with region 4 of σ(70), and interaction with the β flap. The structure provides a framework for interpreting prior genetic and biochemical analysis and sets the stage for future structural studies to elucidate the mechanism by which λQ alters the functional properties of the transcription elongation complex.
Smith, PF, Kaplan C, Sheats JE, Robinson DM, McCool NS, Mezle N, Dismukes CG.  2014.  What determines catalyst functionality in molecular water oxidation? Dependence on ligands and metal nuclearity in cobalt clusters. Inorganic chemistry. 53(4):2113-21. Abstract
The metal-oxo M4O4 "cubane" topology is of special significance to the field of water oxidation as it represents the merging of bioinspired structural principles derived from natural photosynthesis with successful artificial catalysts known to date. Herein, we directly compare the rates of water oxidation/O2 evolution catalyzed by six cobalt-oxo clusters including the Co4O4 cubanes, Co4O4(OAc)4(py)4 and [Co4O4(OAc)2(bpy)4](2+), using the common Ru(bpy)3(2+)/S2O8(2-) photo-oxidant assay. At pH 8, the first-order rate constants for these cubanes differ by 2-fold, 0.030 and 0.015 s(-1), respectively, reflecting the number of labile carboxylate sites that allow substrate water binding in a pre-equilibrium step before O2 release. Kinetic results reveal a deprotonation step occurs on this pathway and that two electrons are removed before O2 evolution occurs. The Co4O4 cubane core is shown to be the smallest catalytic unit for the intramolecular water oxidation pathway, as neither "incomplete cubane" trimers [Co3O(OH)3(OAc)2(bpy)3](2+) and [Co3O(OH)2(OAc)3(py)5](2+) nor "half cubane" dimers [Co2(OH)2(OAc)3(bpy)2](+) and [Co2(OH)2(OAc)3(py)4](+) were found capable of evolving O2, despite having the same ligand sets as their cubane counterparts. Electrochemical studies reveal that oxidation of both cubanes to formally Co4(3III,IV) (0.7 V vs Ag/AgCl) occurs readily, while neither dimers nor trimers are oxidized below 1.5 V, pointing to appreciably greater charge delocalization in the [Co4O4](5+) core. The origin of catalytic activity by Co4O4 cubanes illustrates three key features for water oxidation: (1) four one-electron redox metals, (2) efficient charge delocalization of the first oxidation step across the Co4O4 cluster, allowing for stabilization of higher oxidizing equivalents, and (3) terminal coordination site for substrate aquo/oxo formation.
Tang, W, Liu S, Degen D, Ebright RH, Prusov EV.  2014.  Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Analogues of Ripostatins.. Chemistry. 20:12310-9. AbstractWebsite
Ripostatins are polyene macrolactones isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. They exhibit antibiotic activity by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) through a binding site and mechanism that are different from those of current antibacterial drugs. Thus, the ripostatins serve as starting points for the development of new anti-infective agents with a novel mode of action. In this work, several derivatives of ripostatins were produced. 15-Desoxyripostatin A was synthesized by using a one-pot carboalumination/cross-coupling. 5,6-Dihydroripostatin A was constructed by utilizing an intramolecular Suzuki cross-coupling macrolactonization approach. 14,14'-Difluororipostatin A and both epimeric 14,14'-difluororipostatins B were synthesized by using a Reformatsky type aldol addition of a haloketone, Stille cross-coupling, and ring-closing metathesis. The RNAP-inhibitory and antibacterial activities are presented. Structure-activity relationships indicate that the monocyclic keto-ol form of ripostatin A is the active form of ripostatin A, that the ripostatin C5-C6 unsaturation is important for activity, and that C14 geminal difluorination of ripostatin B results in no loss of activity.
Degen, D, Feng Y, Zhang Y, Ebright KY, Ebright YW, Gigliotti M, Vahedian-Movahed H, Mandal S, Talaue M, Connell N et al..  2014.  Transcription inhibition by the depsipeptide antibiotic salinamide A.. eLife. 3:e02451. Abstract
We report that bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the functional cellular target of the depsipeptide antibiotic salinamide A (Sal), and we report that Sal inhibits RNAP through a novel binding site and mechanism. We show that Sal inhibits RNA synthesis in cells and that mutations that confer Sal-resistance map to RNAP genes. We show that Sal interacts with the RNAP active-center 'bridge-helix cap,' comprising the 'bridge-helix N-terminal hinge,' 'F-loop,' and 'link region.' We show that Sal inhibits nucleotide addition in transcription initiation and elongation. We present a crystal structure that defines interactions between Sal and RNAP and effects of Sal on RNAP conformation. We propose that Sal functions by binding to the RNAP bridge-helix cap and preventing conformational changes of the bridge-helix N-terminal hinge necessary for nucleotide addition. The results provide a target for antibacterial drug discovery and a reagent to probe conformation and function of the bridge-helix N-terminal hinge.