Filters: First Letter Of Title is P  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O [P] Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
Vieira, J, Messing J.  1982.  The pUC plasmids, an M13mp7-derived system for insertion mutagenesis and sequencing with synthetic universal primers. Gene. 19:259-68. AbstractWebsite
A series of plasmid vectors containing the multiple cloning site (MCS7) of M13mp7 has been constructed. In one of these vectors a kanamycin-resistance marker has been inserted into the center of the symmetrical MCS7 to yield a restriction-site-mobilizing element (RSM). The drug-resistance marker can be cleaved out of this vector with any of the restriction enzymes that recognize a site of the flanking sequences of the RSM to generate an RSM with either various sticky ends or blunt ends. These fragments can be used for insertion mutagenesis of any target molecule with compatible restriction sites. Insertion mutants are selected by their resistance to kanamycin. When the drug-resistance marker is removed with PstI, a small in-frame insertion can be generated. In addition, two new MCSs having single restriction sites have been formed by altering the symmetrical structure of MCS7. The resulting plasmids pUC8 and pUC9 allow one to clone doubly digested restriction fragments separately with both orientations in respect to the lac promoter. The terminal sequences of any DNA cloned in these plasmids can be characterized using the universal M13 primers.
Patton, JR, Padgett RW.  2005.  Pseudouridine modification in Caenorhabditis elegans spliceosomal snRNAs: unique modifications are found in regions involved in snRNA-snRNA interactions. BMC molecular biology. 6:20. AbstractWebsite
BACKGROUND: Pseudouridine (Psi) is an abundant modified nucleoside in RNA and a number of studies have shown that the presence of Psi affects RNA structure and function. The positions of Psi in spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) have been determined for a number of species but not for the snRNAs from Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), a popular experimental model system of development. RESULTS: As a prelude to determining the function of or requirement for this modification in snRNAs, we have mapped the positions of Psi in U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6 snRNAs from worms using a specific primer extension method. As with other species, C. elegans U2 snRNA has the greatest number of Psi residues, with nine, located in the 5' half of the U2 snRNA. U5 snRNA has three Psis, in or near the loop of the large stem-loop that dominates the structure of this RNA. U6 and U1 snRNAs each have one Psi, and two Psi residues were found in U4 snRNA. CONCLUSION: The total number of Psis found in the snRNAs of C. elegans is significantly higher than the minimal amount found in yeasts but it is lower than that seen in sequenced vertebrate snRNAs. When the actual sites of modification on C. elegans snRNAs are compared with other sequenced snRNAs most of the positions correspond to modifications found in other species. However, two of the positions modified on C. elegans snRNAs are unique, one at position 28 on U2 snRNA and one at position 62 on U4 snRNA. Both of these modifications are in regions of these snRNAs that interact with U6 snRNA either in the spliceosome or in the U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) and the presence of Psi may be involved in strengthening the intermolecular association of the snRNAs.
Wu, Y, Messing J.  2014.  Proteome balancing of the maize seed for higher nutritional value. Front Plant Sci. 5:240. AbstractWebsite
Most flowering plant seeds are composed of the embryo and endosperm, which are surrounded by maternal tissue, in particular the seed coat. Whereas the embryo is the dormant progeny, the endosperm is a terminal organ for storage of sugars and amino acids in proteins and carbohydrates, respectively. Produced in maternal leaves during photosynthesis, sugars, and amino acids are transported to developing seeds after flowering, and during germination they nourish early seedlings growth. Maize endosperm usually contains around 10% protein and 70% starch, and their composition ratio is rather stable, because it is strictly regulated through a pre-set genetic program that is woven by networks of many interacting or counteracting genes and pathways. Endosperm protein, however, is of low nutritional value due mainly to the high expression of the alpha-zein gene family, which encodes lysine-free proteins. Reduced levels of these proteins in the opaque 2 (o2) mutant and alpha-zein RNAi (RNA interference) transgenic seed is compensated by an increase of non-zein proteins, leading to the rebalancing of the nitrogen sink and producing more or less constant levels of total proteins in the seed. The same rebalancing of zeins and non-zeins has been observed for maize seeds bred for 30% protein. In contrast to the nitrogen sink, storage of sulfur is controlled through the accumulation of specialized sulfur-rich proteins in maize endosperm. Silencing the synthesis of alpha-zeins through RNAi fails to raise sulfur-rich proteins. Although overexpression of the methionine-rich delta-zein can increase the methionine level in seeds, it occurs at least in part at the expense of the cysteine-rich beta- and gamma-zeins, demonstrating a balance between cysteine and methionine in sulfur storage. Therefore, we propose that the throttle for the flow of sulfur is placed before the synthesis of sulfur amino acids when sulfur is taken up and reduced during photosynthesis.
Tang, H, Sun X, Reinberg D, Ebright RH.  1996.  Protein-protein interactions in eukaryotic transcription initiation: structure of the preinitiation complex.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93(3):1119-24. Abstract
We have used alanine scanning to analyze protein-protein interactions by human TATA-element binding protein (TBP) within the transcription preinitiation complex. The results indicate that TBP interacts with RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors IIA, IIB, and IIF within the functional transcription preinitiation complex and define the determinants of TBP for each of these interactions. The results permit construction of a model for the structure of the preinitiation complex.
Carrieri, D, Kolling D, Ananyev GM, Dismukes C.  2006.  Prospecting for biohydrogen fuel. Industrial Biotechnology. 2:40-43.
Ambegaonkar, AA, Pan G, Mani M, Feng Y, Irvine KD.  2012.  Propagation of dachsous-fat planar cell polarity.. Current Biology. 22:1302-1308. AbstractWebsite
The Fat pathway controls both planar cell polarity (PCP) and organ growth [1, 2]. Fat signaling is regulated by the graded expression of the Fat ligand Dachsous (Ds) and the cadherin-domain kinase Four-jointed (Fj). The vectors of these gradients influence PCP [1], whereas their slope can influence growth [3, 4]. The Fj and Ds gradients direct the polarized membrane localization of the myosin Dachs, which is a crucial downstream component of Fat signaling [5-7]. Here we show that repolarization of Dachs by differential expression of Fj or Ds can propagate through the wing disc, which indicates that Fj and Ds gradients can be measured over long range. Through characterization of tagged genomic constructs, we show that Ds and Fat are themselves partially polarized along the endogenous Fj and Ds gradients, providing a mechanism for propagation of PCP within the Fat pathway. We also identify a biochemical mechanism that might contribute to this polarization by showing that Ds is subject to endoproteolytic cleavage and that the relative levels of Ds isoforms are modulated by Fat.
Revyakin, A, Ebright RH, Strick TR.  2004.  Promoter unwinding and promoter clearance by RNA polymerase: detection by single-molecule DNA nanomanipulation.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101(14):4776-80. Abstract
By monitoring the end-to-end extension of a mechanically stretched, supercoiled, single DNA molecule, we have been able directly to observe the change in extension associated with unwinding of approximately one turn of promoter DNA by RNA polymerase (RNAP). By performing parallel experiments with negatively and positively supercoiled DNA, we have been able to deconvolute the change in extension caused by RNAP-dependent DNA unwinding (with approximately 1-bp resolution) and the change in extension caused by RNAP-dependent DNA compaction (with approximately 5-nm resolution). We have used this approach to quantify the extent of unwinding and compaction, the kinetics of unwinding and compaction, and effects of supercoiling, sequence, ppGpp, and nucleotides. We also have used this approach to detect promoter clearance and promoter recycling by successive RNAP molecules. We find that the rate of formation and the stability of the unwound complex depend profoundly on supercoiling and that supercoiling exerts its effects mechanically (through torque), and not structurally (through the number and position of supercoils). The approach should permit analysis of other nucleic-acid-processing factors that cause changes in DNA twist and/or DNA compaction.
Feng, Y, Irvine KD.  2009.  Processing and phosphorylation of the Fat receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. AbstractWebsite
The Drosophila tumor suppressors fat and discs overgrown (dco) function within an intercellular signaling pathway that controls growth and polarity. fat encodes a transmembrane receptor, but post-translational regulation of Fat has not been described. We show here that Fat is subject to a constitutive proteolytic processing, such that most or all cell surface Fat comprises a heterodimer of stably associated N- and C-terminal fragments. The cytoplasmic domain of Fat is phosphorylated, and this phosphorylation is promoted by the Fat ligand Dachsous. dco encodes a kinase that influences Fat signaling, and Dco is able to promote the phosphorylation of the Fat intracellular domain in cultured cells and in vivo. Evaluation of dco mutants indicates that they affect Fat's influence on growth and gene expression but not its influence on planar cell polarity. Our observations identify processing and phosphorylation as post-translational modifications of Fat, correlate the phosphorylation of Fat with its activation by Dachsous in the Fat-Warts pathway, and enhance our understanding of the requirement for Dco in Fat signaling.
Datsenko, KA, Pougach K, Tikhonov A, Wanner BL, Severinov K, Semenova E.  2012.  Prior encounters dramatically stimulate adaptive bacterial CRISPR immune response to viruses. Nature Commun. 3:945.
Goldman, SR, Nair N, Wells C, Nickels BE, Hochschild A.  2015.  The primary σ factor in Escherichia coli can access the transcription elongation complex from solution in vivo. eLife. 4:e10514.
Geraghty, D, Peifer MA, Rubenstein I, Messing J.  1981.  The primary structure of a plant storage protein: zein. Nucleic acids research. 9:5163-74. AbstractWebsite
The protein sequence of a representative of the zeins, the major storage proteins of maize, has been derived from the nucleotide sequence of a zein cDNA clone. This cDNA was sequence both by the Maxam and Gilbert and the M13-dideoxy techniques. The nucleotide sequence encompasses the non-translated 3' terminus of the mRNA, the entire coding sequence specifying both the mature zein protein and a small signal peptide, and a portion of the non-translated 5' region. The deduced amino acid composition and the amino-terminal amino acid sequence closely resemble those derived from chemical analysis of the zein protein fraction. The data presented represent the first complete amino acid sequence of a plant storage protein.
Hu, NT, Peifer MA, Heidecker G, Messing J, Rubenstein I.  1982.  Primary structure of a genomic zein sequence of maize. The EMBO journal. 1:1337-42. AbstractWebsite
The nucleotide sequence of a genomic clone (termed Z4 ) of the zein multigene family was compared to the nucleotide sequence of related cDNA clones of zein mRNAs. A tandem duplication of a 96-bp sequence is found in the genomic clone that is not present in the related cDNA clones. When the duplication is disregarded, the nucleotide sequence homology between Z4 and its related cDNAs was approximately 97%. The nucleotide sequence is also compared to other isolated cDNAs. No introns in the coding region of the zein gene are detected. The first nucleotide of a putative TATA box, TATAAATA , was located 88 nucleotides upstream of the first nucleotide of the first ATG codon which initiated the open reading frame. The first nucleotide of a putative CCAAT box, CAAAAT , appeared 45 nucleotides upstream of the first nucleotide of the zein cDNA clones in the 3' non-coding region also appeared in the genomic sequence at the same locations. The amino acid composition of the polypeptide specified by the Z4 nucleotide sequence is similar to the known composition of zein proteins.
Vvedenskaya, IO, Goldman SR, Nickels BE.  2015.  Preparation of cDNA libraries for high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis of RNA 5' ends. Methods Mol Biol. 1276:211-228.
Holder, AA, Taylor P, Magnusen AR, Moffett ET, Meyer K, Hong Y, Ramsdale SE, Gordon M, Stubbs J, Seymour LA et al..  2013.  Preliminary anti-cancer photodynamic therapeutic in vitro studies with mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes.. Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003). 42(33):11881-99. Abstract
We report the synthesis and characterisation of mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes, which were used as potential photodynamic therapeutic agents for melanoma cell growth inhibition. The novel complexes, [Ru(pbt)2(phen2DTT)](PF6)2·1.5H2O 1 (where phen2DTT = 1,4-bis(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-ylsulfanyl)butane-2,3-diol and pbt = 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzothiazole) and [Ru(pbt)2(tpphz)](PF6)2·3H2O 2 (where tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]phenazine) were synthesised and characterised. Compound 1 was reacted with [VO(sal-L-tryp)(H2O)] (where sal-L-tryp = N-salicylidene-L-tryptophanate) to produce [Ru(pbt)2(phen2DTT)VO(sal-L-tryp)](PF6)2·5H2O 4; while [VO(sal-L-tryp)(H2O)] was reacted with compound 2 to produce [Ru(pbt)2(tpphz)VO(sal-L-tryp)](PF6)2·6H2O 3. All complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, HRMS, ESI MS, UV-visible absorption, ESR spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, where appropriate. In vitro cell toxicity studies (with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) via dark and light reaction conditions were carried out with sodium diaqua-4,4',4'',4''' tetrasulfophthalocyaninecobaltate(II) (Na4[Co(tspc)(H2O)2]), [VO(sal-L-tryp)(phen)]·H2O, and the chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4. Such studies involved A431, human epidermoid carcinoma cells; human amelanotic malignant melanoma cells; and HFF, non-cancerous human skin fibroblast cells. Both chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4 were found to be more toxic to melanoma cells than to non-cancerous fibroblast cells, and preferentially led to apoptosis of the melanoma cells over non-cancerous skin cells. The anti-cancer property of the chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4 was further enhanced when treated cells were exposed to light, while no such effect was observed on non-cancerous skin fibroblast cells. ESR and (51)V NMR spectroscopic studies were also used to assess the stability of the chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4 in aqueous media at pH 7.19. This research illustrates the potential for using mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes to fight skin cancer.
Cruz-Alvarez, M, Kirihara JA, Messing J.  1991.  Post-transcriptional regulation of methionine content in maize kernels. Molecular & general genetics : MGG. 225:331-9. AbstractWebsite
Message levels for a methionine-rich 10 kDa zein were determined in three inbred lines of maize and their reciprocal crosses at various stages during endosperm development. Inbred line BSSS-53, which overexpresses the 10 kDa protein in mature kernels, was shown to have higher mRNA levels in developing endosperm, as compared to inbred lines W23 and W64A. Differences in mRNA levels could not be explained by differences in transcription rate of the 10 kDa zein gene, indicating differential post-transcriptional regulation of this storage protein in the different inbred lines analyzed. Among progeny segregating for the BSSS-53 allele of the 10 kDa zein structural gene Zps10/(22), mRNA levels are independent of Zps10/(22) segregation, indicating that post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA levels takes place via a trans-acting mechanism. In the same progeny, mRNA levels are also independent of allelic segregation of the regulatory locus Zpr10/(22). Thus, the trans-acting factor encoded by Zpr10/(22) determines accumulation of 10 kDa zein at a translational or post-translational step. Multiple trans-acting factors are therefore involved in post-transcriptional regulation of the methionine-rich 10 kDa zein.
Gallavotti, A. and Whipple, CJ.  2015.  Positional cloning in maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, Poaceae). Applications in Plant Sciences. 3:1400092.Website
Messing, J.  2009.  The Polyploid Origin of Maize. The Maize Handbook: Domestication, Genetics, and Genome. :221-238.
Du, C., Fefelova, N., Caronna, J., He, L., Dooner HK.  2009.  The polychromatic Helitron landscape of the maize genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 106:19916–19921. Abstract
150 copies of a transposon-like sequence, termed Heltir, that has terminal inverted repeats resembling Helitron 3' termini. Nonautonomous Helitrons make up at least 2% of the maize genome and most of those tested show +/- polymorphisms among modern inbred lines.
Dooner, HK, He L.  2014.  Polarized gene conversion at the bz locus of maize.. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 111(38):13918-23. Abstract
Nucleotide diversity is greater in maize than in most organisms studied to date, so allelic pairs in a hybrid tend to be highly polymorphic. Most recombination events between such pairs of maize polymorphic alleles are crossovers. However, intragenic recombination events not associated with flanking marker exchange, corresponding to noncrossover gene conversions, predominate between alleles derived from the same progenitor. In these dimorphic heterozygotes, the two alleles differ only at the two mutant sites between which recombination is being measured. To investigate whether gene conversion at the bz locus is polarized, two large diallel crossing matrices involving mutant sites spread across the bz gene were performed and more than 2,500 intragenic recombinants were scored. In both diallels, around 90% of recombinants could be accounted for by gene conversion. Furthermore, conversion exhibited a striking polarity, with sites located within 150 bp of the start and stop codons converting more frequently than sites located in the middle of the gene. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to recent data from genome-wide studies in other plants.
Shao, W, Dong J.  2016.  Polarity in plant asymmetric cell division: Division orientation and cell fate differentiation.. Dev. Biol.. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.07.020
Bosacchi, M, Gurdon C, Maliga P.  2015.  Plastid Genotyping Reveals the Uniformity of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile-T Maize Cytoplasms.. Plant Physiology. 169:2129-2137.
Colavita, A, Krishna S, Zheng H, Padgett RW, Culotti JG.  1998.  Pioneer axon guidance by UNC-129, a C. elegans TGF-β. Science (New York, NY). 281:706-9. AbstractWebsite
The unc-129 gene, like the unc-6 netrin gene, is required to guide pioneer motoraxons along the dorsoventral axis of Caenorhabditis elegans. unc-129 encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of secreted signaling molecules and is expressed in dorsal, but not ventral, rows of body wall muscles. Ectopic expression of UNC-129 from ventral body wall muscle disrupts growth cone and cell migrations that normally occur along the dorsoventral axis. Thus, UNC-129 mediates expression of dorsoventral polarity information required for axon guidance and guided cell migrations in C. elegans.
Wei, F, Coe E, Nelson W, Bharti AK, Engler F, Butler E, Kim H, Goicoechea JL, Chen M, Lee S et al..  2007.  Physical and Genetic Structure of the Maize Genome Reflects Its Complex Evolutionary History. PLoS Genet. 3:e123. AbstractWebsite
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops and a model for the study of genetics, evolution, and domestication. To better understand maize genome organization and to build a framework for genome sequencing, we constructed a sequence-ready fingerprinted contig-based physical map that covers 93.5% of the genome, of which 86.1% is aligned to the genetic map. The fingerprinted contig map contains 25,908 genic markers that enabled us to align nearly 73% of the anchored maize genome to the rice genome. The distribution pattern of expressed sequence tags correlates to that of recombination. In collinear regions, 1 kb in rice corresponds to an average of 3.2 kb in maize, yet maize has a 6-fold genome size expansion. This can be explained by the fact that most rice regions correspond to two regions in maize as a result of its recent polyploid origin. Inversions account for the majority of chromosome structural variations during subsequent maize diploidization. We also find clear evidence of ancient genome duplication predating the divergence of the progenitors of maize and rice. Reconstructing the paleoethnobotany of the maize genome indicates that the progenitors of modern maize contained ten chromosomes.
Vinyard, DJ, Ananyev GM, Dismukes CG.  2013.  Photosystem II: the reaction center of oxygenic photosynthesis.. Annual review of biochemistry. 82:577-606. Abstract
Photosystem II (PSII) uses light energy to split water into chemical products that power the planet. The stripped protons contribute to a membrane electrochemical potential before combining with the stripped electrons to make chemical bonds and releasing O2 for powering respiratory metabolisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the kinetics and thermodynamics of water oxidation that highlights the conserved performance of PSIIs across species. We discuss recent advances in our understanding of the site of water oxidation based upon the improved (1.9-Å resolution) atomic structure of the Mn4CaO5 water-oxidizing complex (WOC) within cyanobacterial PSII. We combine these insights with recent knowledge gained from studies of the biogenesis and assembly of the WOC (called photoassembly) to arrive at a proposed chemical mechanism for water oxidation.