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Schaefer, H, Rongo C.  2006.  KEL-8 is a substrate receptor for CUL3-dependent ubiquitin ligase that regulates synaptic glutamate receptor turnover. Mol Biol Cell. 17:1250-60. AbstractWebsite
The regulated localization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) to synapses is an important component of synaptic signaling and plasticity. Regulated ubiquitination and endocytosis determine the synaptic levels of AMPARs, but it is unclear which factors conduct these processes. To identify genes that regulate AMPAR synaptic abundance, we screened for mutants that accumulate high synaptic levels of the AMPAR subunit GLR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. GLR-1 is localized to postsynaptic clusters, and mutants for the BTB-Kelch protein KEL-8 have increased GLR-1 levels at clusters, whereas the levels and localization of other synaptic proteins seem normal. KEL-8 is a neuronal protein and is localized to sites adjacent to GLR-1 postsynaptic clusters along the ventral cord neurites. KEL-8 is required for the ubiquitin-mediated turnover of GLR-1 subunits, and kel-8 mutants show an increased frequency of spontaneous reversals in locomotion, suggesting increased levels of GLR-1 are present at synapses. KEL-8 binds to CUL-3, a Cullin 3 ubiquitin ligase subunit that we also find mediates GLR-1 turnover. Our findings indicate that KEL-8 is a substrate receptor for Cullin 3 ubiquitin ligases that is required for the proteolysis of GLR-1 receptors and suggest a novel postmitotic role in neurons for Kelch/CUL3 ubiquitin ligases.
Cesario, JM, Jang JK, Redding B, Shah N, Rahman T, McKim KS.  2006.  Kinesin 6 family member Subito participates in mitotic spindle assembly and interacts with mitotic regulators. J Cell Sci. 119:4770-80.Website
Morsci, NS, Barr MM.  2011.  Kinesin-3 KLP-6 Regulates Intraflagellar Transport in Male-Specific Cilia of Caenorhabditis Elegans. Curr Biol. 21:1239-1244. Abstract
Cilia are cellular sensory organelles whose integrity of structure and function are important to human health [1]. All cilia are assembled and maintained by kinesin-2 motors in a process termed intraflagellar transport (IFT), but they exhibit great variety of morphology and function. This diversity is proposed to be conferred by cell-specific modulation of the core IFT by additional factors, but examples of such IFT modulators are limited [2-4]. Here we demonstrate that the cell-specific kinesin-3 KLP-6 acts as a modulator of both IFT dynamics and length in the cephalic male (CEM) cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans. Live imaging of GFP-tagged kinesins in CEM cilia shows partial uncoupling of the IFT motors of the kinesin-2 family, kinesin-II and OSM-3/KIF17, with a portion of OSM-3 moving independently of the IFT complex. KLP-6 moves independently of the kinesin-2 motors and acts to reduce the velocity of OSM-3 and IFT. Additionally, kinesin-II mutants display a novel CEM cilia elongation phenotype that is partially dependent on OSM-3 and KLP-6. Our observations illustrate modulation of the general kinesin-2-driven IFT process by a cell-specific kinesin-3 in cilia of C. elegans male neurons.
Maneiro, M, Ruettinger WF, Bourles E, McLendon GL, Dismukes CG.  2003.  Kinetics of proton-coupled electron-transfer reactions to the manganese-oxo “cubane” complexes containing the Mn4O and Mn4O core types. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100:3707-3712. AbstractWebsite
The kinetics of proton-coupled electron-transfer (pcet) reactions are reported for Mn4O4(O2PPh2)6, 1, and [Mn4O4(O2PPh2)6]+, 1+, with phenothiazine (pzH). Both pcet reactions form 1H, by H transfer to 1 and by hydride transfer to 1+. Surprisingly, the rate constants differ by only 25% despite large differences in the formal charges and driving force. The driving force is proportional to the difference in the bond-dissociation energies (BDE >94 kcal/mol for homolytic, 1H → H + 1, vs. ≈127 kcal/mol for heterolytic, 1H → H− + 1+, dissociation of the O—H bond in 1H). The enthalpy and entropy of activation for the homolytic reaction (ΔH‡ = −1.2 kcal/mol and ΔS‡ = −32 cal/mol⋅K; 25–6.7°C) reveal a low activation barrier and an appreciable entropic penalty in the transition state. The rate-limiting step exhibits no H/D kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD = 0.96) for the first H atom-transfer step and a small kinetic isotope effect (1.4) for the second step (1H + pzH → 1H2 + pz•). These lines of evidence indicate that formation of a reactive precursor complex before atom transfer is rate-limiting (conformational gating), and that little or no N—H bond cleavage occurs in the transition state. H-atom transfer from pzH to alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals reveals that BDEs are not a good predictor of the rates of this reaction. Hydride transfer to 1+ provides a concrete example of two-electron pcet that is hypothesized for the O—H bond cleavage step during catalysis of photosynthetic water oxidation.
Peden, EM, Barr MM.  2005.  The KLP-6 Kinesin is Required for male Mating Behaviors and Polycystin Localization in Caenorhabditis Elegans. Curr Biol. 15:394-404. Abstract
Male mating behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers an intriguing model to study the genetics of sensory behavior, cilia function, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The C. elegans polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2 act in male-specific sensory cilia required for response and vulva-location mating behaviors.