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Wu, Y, Holding DR, Messing J.  2010.  Gamma-zeins are essential for endosperm modification in quality protein maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107:12810-5. AbstractWebsite
Essential amino acids like lysine and tryptophan are deficient in corn meal because of the abundance of zein storage proteins that lack these amino acids. A natural mutant, opaque 2 (o2) causes reduction of zeins, an increase of nonzein proteins, and as a consequence, a doubling of lysine levels. However, o2's soft inferior kernels precluded its commercial use. Breeders subsequently overcame kernel softness, selecting several quantitative loci (QTLs), called o2 modifiers, without losing the high-lysine trait. These maize lines are known as "quality protein maize" (QPM). One of the QTLs is linked to the 27-kDa gamma-zein locus on chromosome 7S. Moreover, QPM lines have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of the 27-kDa gamma-zein, but the physiological significance of this increase is not known. Because the 27- and 16-kDa gamma-zein genes are highly conserved in DNA sequence, we introduced a dominant RNAi transgene into a QPM line (CM105Mo2) to eliminate expression of them both. Elimination of gamma-zeins disrupts endosperm modification by o2 modifiers, indicating their hypostatic action to gamma-zeins. Abnormalities in protein body structure and their interaction with starch granules in the F1 with Mo2/+; o2/o2; gammaRNAi/+ genotype suggests that gamma-zeins are essential for restoring protein body density and starch grain interaction in QPM. To eliminate pleiotropic effects caused by o2, the 22-kDa alpha-zein, gamma-zein, and beta-zein RNAis were stacked, resulting in protein bodies forming as honeycomb-like structures. We are unique in presenting clear demonstration that gamma-zeins play a mechanistic role in QPM, providing a previously unexplored rationale for molecular breeding.
Zhang, Y, Degen D, Ho MX, Sineva E, Ebright KY, Ebright YW, Mekler V, Vahedian-Movahed H, Feng Y, Yin R et al..  2014.  GE23077 binds to the RNA polymerase 'i' and 'i+1' sites and prevents the binding of initiating nucleotides.. eLife. 3:e02450. Abstract
Using a combination of genetic, biochemical, and structural approaches, we show that the cyclic-peptide antibiotic GE23077 (GE) binds directly to the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) active-center 'i' and 'i+1' nucleotide binding sites, preventing the binding of initiating nucleotides, and thereby preventing transcription initiation. The target-based resistance spectrum for GE is unusually small, reflecting the fact that the GE binding site on RNAP includes residues of the RNAP active center that cannot be substituted without loss of RNAP activity. The GE binding site on RNAP is different from the rifamycin binding site. Accordingly, GE and rifamycins do not exhibit cross-resistance, and GE and a rifamycin can bind simultaneously to RNAP. The GE binding site on RNAP is immediately adjacent to the rifamycin binding site. Accordingly, covalent linkage of GE to a rifamycin provides a bipartite inhibitor having very high potency and very low susceptibility to target-based resistance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02450.001.
Song, R, Messing J.  2003.  Gene expression of a gene family in maize based on noncollinear haplotypes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100:9055-60. AbstractWebsite
Genomic regions of nearly every species diverged into different haplotypes, mostly based on point mutations, small deletions, and insertions that do not affect the collinearity of genes within a species. However, the same genomic interval containing the z1C gene cluster of two inbred lines of Zea mays significantly lost their gene collinearity and also differed in the regulation of each remaining gene set. Furthermore, when inbreds were reciprocally crossed, hybrids exhibited an unexpected shift of expression patterns so that "overdominance" instead of "dominance complementation" of allelic and nonallelic gene expression occurred. The same interval also differed in length (360 vs. 263 kb). Segmental rearrangements led to sequence changes, which were further enhanced by the insertion of different transposable elements. Changes in gene order affected not only z1C genes but also three unrelated genes. However, the orthologous interval between two subspecies of rice (not rice cultivars) was conserved in length and gene order, whereas changes between two maize inbreds were as drastic as changes between maize and sorghum. Given that chromosomes could conceivably consist of intervals of haplotypes that are highly diverged, one could envision endless breeding opportunities because of their linear arrangement along a chromosome and their expression potential in hybrid combinations ("binary" systems). The implication of such a hypothesis for heterosis is discussed.
Lai, J, Ma J, Swigonova Z, Ramakrishna W, Linton E, Llaca V, Tanyolac B, Park YJ, Jeong OY, Bennetzen JL et al..  2004.  Gene loss and movement in the maize genome. Genome research. 14:1924-31. AbstractWebsite
Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays), one of the most important agricultural crops in the world, originated by hybridization of two closely related progenitors. To investigate the fate of its genes after tetraploidization, we analyzed the sequence of five duplicated regions from different chromosomal locations. We also compared corresponding regions from sorghum and rice, two important crops that have largely collinear maps with maize. The split of sorghum and maize progenitors was recently estimated to be 11.9 Mya, whereas rice diverged from the common ancestor of maize and sorghum approximately 50 Mya. A data set of roughly 4 Mb yielded 206 predicted genes from the three species, excluding any transposon-related genes, but including eight gene remnants. On average, 14% of the genes within the aligned regions are noncollinear between any two species. However, scoring each maize region separately, the set of noncollinear genes between all four regions jumps to 68%. This is largely because at least 50% of the duplicated genes from the two progenitors of maize have been lost over a very short period of time, possibly as short as 5 million years. Using the nearly completed rice sequence, we found noncollinear genes in other chromosomal positions, frequently in more than one. This demonstrates that many genes in these species have moved to new chromosomal locations in the last 50 million years or less, most as single gene events that did not dramatically alter gene structure.
Lai, J, Li Y, Messing J, Dooner HK.  2005.  Gene movement by Helitron transposons contributes to the haplotype variability of maize. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102:9068-73. AbstractWebsite
Different maize inbred lines are polymorphic for the presence or absence of genic sequences at various allelic chromosomal locations. In the bz genomic region, located in 9S, sequences homologous to four different genes from rice and Arabidopsis are present in line McC but absent from line B73. It is shown here that this apparent intraspecific violation of genetic colinearity arises from the movement of genes or gene fragments by Helitrons, a recently discovered class of eukaryotic transposons. Two Helitrons, HelA and HelB, account for all of the genic differences distinguishing the two bz locus haplotypes. HelA is 5.9 kb long and contains sequences for three of the four genes found only in the McC bz genomic region. A nearly identical copy of HelA was isolated from a 5S chromosomal location in B73. Both the 9S and 5S sites appear to be polymorphic in maize, suggesting that these Helitrons have been active recently. Helitrons lack the strong predictive terminal features of other transposons, so the definition of their ends is greatly facilitated by the identification of their vacant sites in Helitron-minus lines. The ends of the 2.7-kb HelB Helitron were discerned from a comparison of the McC haplotype sequence with that of yet a third line, Mo17, because the HelB vacant site is deleted in B73. Maize Helitrons resemble rice Pack-MULEs in their ability to capture genes or gene fragments from several loci and move them around the genome, features that confer on them a potential role in gene evolution.
Lai, J, Li Y, Messing J, Dooner HK.  2005.  Gene movement by Helitron transposons contributes to the haplotype variability of maize. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 102:9068–9073. Abstract
Different maize inbred lines are polymorphic for the presence or absence of genic sequences at various allelic chromosomal locations. In the bz genomic region, located in 9S, sequences homologous to four different genes from rice and Arabidopsis are present in line McC but absent from line B73. It is shown here that this apparent intraspecific violation of genetic colinearity arises from the movement of genes or gene fragments by Helitrons, a recently discovered class of eukaryotic transposons. Two Helitrons, HelA and HelB, account for all of the genic differences distinguishing the two bz locus haplotypes. HelA is 5.9 kb long and contains sequences for three of the four genes found only in the McC bz genomic region. A nearly identical copy of HelA was isolated from a 5S chromosomal location in B73. Both the 9S and 5S sites appear to be polymorphic in maize, suggesting that these Helitrons have been active recently. Helitrons lack the strong predictive terminal features of other transposons, so the definition of their ends is greatly facilitated by the identification of their vacant sites in Helitron-minus lines. The ends of the 2.7-kb HelB Helitron were discerned from a comparison of the McC haplotype sequence with that of yet a third line, Mo17, because the HelB vacant site is deleted in B73. Maize Helitrons resemble rice Pack-MULEs in their ability to capture genes or gene fragments from several loci and move them around the genome, features that confer on them a potential role in gene evolution.
Li, Y., Segal, G., Wang, Q., Dooner HK.  2013.  Gene tagging with engineered Ds elements in maize. Methods in Molecular Biology: Plant Transposable Elements. :83-99.
Bae, Y-K, Qin H, Knobel KM, Hu J, Rosenbaum JL, Barr MM.  2006.  General and Cell-type Specific Mechanisms Target TRPP2/PKD-2 to Cilia. Development. 133:3859-3870. Abstract
Ciliary localization of the transient receptor potential polycystin 2 channel (TRPP2/PKD-2) is evolutionarily conserved, but how TRPP2 is targeted to cilia is not known. In this study, we characterize the motility and localization of PKD-2, a TRPP2 homolog, in C. elegans sensory neurons. We demonstrate that GFP-tagged PKD-2 moves bidirectionally in the dendritic compartment. Furthermore, we show a requirement for different molecules in regulating the ciliary localization of PKD-2. PKD-2 is directed to moving dendritic particles by the UNC-101/adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) complex. When expressed in non-native neurons, PKD-2 remains in cell bodies and is not observed in dendrites or cilia, indicating that cell-type specific factors are required for directing PKD-2 to the dendrite. PKD-2 stabilization in cilia and cell bodies requires LOV-1, a functional partner and a TRPP1 homolog. In lov-1 mutants, PKD-2 is greatly reduced in cilia and forms abnormal aggregates in neuronal cell bodies. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is not essential for PKD-2 dendritic motility or access to the cilium, but may regulate PKD-2 ciliary abundance. We propose that both general and cell-type-specific factors govern TRPP2/PKD-2 subcellular distribution by forming at least two steps involving somatodendritic and ciliary sorting decisions.
Holding, DR, Hunter BG, Chung T, Gibbon BC, Ford CF, Bharti AK, Messing J, Hamaker BR, Larkins BA.  2008.  Genetic analysis of opaque2 modifier loci in quality protein maize. Theor Appl Genet. 117:157-70. AbstractWebsite
Quality protein maize (QPM) was created by selecting genetic modifiers that convert the starchy endosperm of an opaque2 (o2) mutant to a hard, vitreous phenotype. Genetic analysis has shown that there are multiple, unlinked o2 modifiers (Opm), but their identity and mode of action are unknown. Using two independently developed QPM lines, we mapped several major Opm QTLs to chromosomes 1, 7 and 9. A microarray hybridization performed with RNA obtained from true breeding o2 progeny with vitreous and opaque kernel phenotypes identified a small group of differentially expressed genes, some of which map at or near the Opm QTLs. Several of the genes are associated with ethylene and ABA signaling and suggest a potential linkage of o2 endosperm modification with programmed cell death.
Padgett, RW, Savage C, Das P.  1997.  Genetic and biochemical analysis of TGFβ signal transduction. Cytokine & growth factor reviews. 8:1-9. AbstractWebsite
TGF beta-like ligands are involved in many different developmental processes that pattern a variety of tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates. In the last few years, rapid progress has been made toward elucidating the developmental roles of the TGF beta-like pathways and identifying the novel components involved in transducing their signals, particularly the newly discovered Smads. This rapid progress has been the result of a synergy between classical genetic approaches and biochemical approaches, and this combined approach is likely to propel future understanding of the signaling pathway used by TGF beta.
Das, P, Maduzia LL, Padgett RW.  1999.  Genetic approaches to TGFβ signaling pathways. Cytokine & growth factor reviews. 10:179-86.Website
Nickels, BE.  2009.  Genetic assays to define and characterize protein-protein interactions involved in gene regulation. Methods. 47:53-62. AbstractWebsite
Transcription can be regulated during initiation, elongation, and termination by an enormous variety of regulatory factors. A critical step in obtaining a mechanistic understanding of regulatory factor function is the determination of whether the regulatory factor exerts its effect through direct contact with the transcription machinery. Here I describe the application of a transcription activation-based bacterial two-hybrid assay that is useful for the identification and genetic dissection of protein-protein interactions involved in gene regulation. I provide examples of how this two-hybrid system can be adapted for the study of "global" regulatory factors, sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, and interactions that occur between two subunits of RNA polymerase (RNAP). These assays facilitate the isolation and characterization of informative amino acid substitutions within both regulatory factors and RNAP. Furthermore, these assays often enable the study of substitutions in essential domains of RNAP that would be lethal in their natural context.
Savage-Dunn, C, Maduzia L, Zimmerman C, Roberts A, Cohen S, Tokarz R, Padgett R.  2003.  Genetic screen for small body size mutants in C. elegans reveals many TGFβ pathway components. Genesis. 35:239-247. AbstractWebsite
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a TGFbeta-related signaling pathway regulates body size and male tail morphogenesis. We sought to identify genes encoding components or modifiers of this pathway in a large-scale genetic screen. Remarkably, this screen was able to identify essentially all core components of the TGFbeta signaling pathway. Among 34 Small mutants, many mutations disrupt genes encoding recognizable components of the TGFbeta pathway: DBL-1 ligand, DAF-4 type II receptor, SMA-6 type I receptor, and SMA-2, SMA-3, and SMA-4 Smads. Moreover, we find that at least 11 additional complementation groups can mutate to the Small phenotype. Four of these 11 genes, sma-9, sma-14, sma-16, and sma-20 affect male tail morphogenesis as well as body size. Two genes, sma-11 and sma-20, also influence regulation of the developmentally arrested dauer larval stage, suggesting a role in a second characterized TGFbeta pathway in C. elegans. Other genes may represent tissue-specific factors or parallel pathways for body size control. Because of the conservation of TGFbeta signaling pathways, homologs of these genes may be involved in tissue specificity and/or crosstalk of TGFbeta pathways in other animals.
Page, SL, McKim KS, Deneen B, Van Hook TL, Hawley RS.  2000.  Genetic studies of mei-P26 reveal a link between the processes that control germ cell proliferation in both sexes and those that control meiotic exchange in Drosophila. Genetics. 155:1757-72.. AbstractWebsite
We present the cloning and characterization of mei-P26, a novel P- element-induced exchange-defective female meiotic mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Meiotic exchange in females homozygous for mei-P26(1) is reduced in a polar fashion, such that distal chromosomal regions are the most severely affected. Additional alleles generated by duplication of the P element reveal that mei-P26 is also necessary for germline differentiation in both females and males. To further assess the role of mei-P26 in germline differentiation, we tested double mutant combinations of mei-P26 and bag-of-marbles (bam), a gene necessary for the control of germline differentiation and proliferation in both sexes. A null mutation at the bam locus was found to act as a dominant enhancer of mei-P26 in both males and females. Interestingly, meiotic exchange in mei-P26(1); bam(Delta)(86)/+ females is also severely decreased in comparison to mei-P26(1) homozygotes, indicating that bam affects the meiotic phenotype as well. These data suggest that the pathways controlling germline differentiation and meiotic exchange are related and that factors involved in the mitotic divisions of the germline may regulate meiotic recombination.
Geldziler, BD, Marcello MR, Shakes DC, Singson A.  2011.  The genetics and cell biology of fertilization. Methods Cell Biol.. 106:343–375. Abstract
Although the general events surrounding fertilization in many species are well described, the molecular underpinnings of fertilization are still poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model system for addressing the molecular and cell biological mechanism of fertilization. A primary advantage is the ability to isolate and propagate mutants that effect gametes and no other cells. This chapter provides conceptual guidelines for the identification, maintenance, and experimental approaches for the study fertility mutants.
Gordon, SP, Priest H, Des Marais DL, Schackwitz W, Figueroa M, Martin J, Bragg JN, Tyler L, Lee CR, Bryant D et al..  2014.  Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines. Plant J. 79:361-74. AbstractWebsite
Brachypodium distachyon is small annual grass that has been adopted as a model for the grasses. Its small genome, high-quality reference genome, large germplasm collection, and selfing nature make it an excellent subject for studies of natural variation. We sequenced six divergent lines to identify a comprehensive set of polymorphisms and analyze their distribution and concordance with gene expression. Multiple methods and controls were utilized to identify polymorphisms and validate their quality. mRNA-Seq experiments under control and simulated drought-stress conditions, identified 300 genes with a genotype-dependent treatment response. We showed that large-scale sequence variants had extremely high concordance with altered expression of hundreds of genes, including many with genotype-dependent treatment responses. We generated a deep mRNA-Seq dataset for the most divergent line and created a de novo transcriptome assembly. This led to the discovery of >2400 previously unannotated transcripts and hundreds of genes not present in the reference genome. We built a public database for visualization and investigation of sequence variants among these widely used inbred lines.
International-Brachypodium-Initiative.  2010.  Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Nature. 463:763-8. AbstractWebsite
Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops.
Wang, W, Wu Y, Messing J.  2016.  Genome-wide analysis of pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins of an aquatic plant.. Planta. Abstract
A large proportion of genes in plant genomes are organized as gene families. Whereas most gene families in the aquative plant Spirodela are reduced in their copy number, the PPR gene family is expanded, which match the RNA editing sites in organelles, providing us with new insights in the evolution of flowering plants. Pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins (PPRs) are nuclear-encoded proteins that are targeted to mitochondria and plastids to stabilize and edit mRNA transcribed from organellar genomes. They have been described for many terrestrial plant species from a diverse spectrum of sequenced genomes. To further increase our understanding of the evolution of this gene family across angiosperms, we analyzed the PPR genes in the aquatic species Spirodela polyrhiza in the order of the Alismatales (monocotyledonous plants). Because we had generated next generation sequencing data from transcripts and had sequenced the genome of Spirodela polyrhiza, we were able to identify its PPR genes and determine the level of their expression. In total, we could identify 556 PPR proteins, of which 238 members belong to the P (P motif) subfamily that is mainly involved in RNA stabilization and 318 ones to the PLS (P, Longer P, shorter P motif) subfamily responsible for RNA editing. Compared to other angiosperms, this is a large increase in the copy number of the PLS-PPRs subfamily and the expansion correlates with the increase of the number of RNA editing sites of organellar transcripts. Expression of PPR was generally stable even during growing and dormant stages, indicating that their function was critical throughout development. However, PPRs, especially those of the PLS subfamily, were expressed at relatively low levels, suggesting a delicate fine-tuning of its trans-acting function in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Thus, understanding PPR evolution and expression will help decipher the PPR code for their binding sites, which could genetically engineer RNA-binding proteins toward desired sequence.
Oh, H, Slattery M, Ma L, Crofts A, White KP, Mann RS, Irvine KD.  2013.  Genome-wide association of Yorkie with chromatin and chromatin-remodeling complexes. Cell reports. 3:309-18. AbstractWebsite
The Hippo pathway regulates growth through the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie, but how Yorkie promotes transcription remains poorly understood. We address this by characterizing Yorkie's association with chromatin and by identifying nuclear partners that effect transcriptional activation. Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry identify GAGA factor (GAF), the Brahma complex, and the Mediator complex as Yorkie-associated nuclear protein complexes. All three are required for Yorkie's transcriptional activation of downstream genes, and GAF and the Brahma complex subunit Moira interact directly with Yorkie. Genome-wide chromatin-binding experiments identify thousands of Yorkie sites, most of which are associated with elevated transcription, based on genome-wide analysis of messenger RNA and histone H3K4Me3 modification. Chromatin binding also supports extensive functional overlap between Yorkie and GAF. Our studies suggest a widespread role for Yorkie as a regulator of transcription and identify recruitment of the chromatin-modifying GAF protein and BRM complex as a molecular mechanism for transcriptional activation by Yorkie.
Oh, H, Slattery M, Ma L, Crofts A, White KP, Mann RS, Irvine KD.  2013.  Genome-wide Association of Yorkie with Chromatin and Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes.. Cell Reports. 3:309-318. AbstractWebsite
The Hippo pathway regulates growth through the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie, but how Yorkie promotes transcription remains poorly understood. We address this by characterizing Yorkie's association with chromatin and by identifying nuclear partners that effect transcriptional activation. Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry identify GAGA factor (GAF), the Brahma complex, and the Mediator complex as Yorkie-associated nuclear protein complexes. All three are required for Yorkie's transcriptional activation of downstream genes, and GAF and the Brahma complex subunit Moira interact directly with Yorkie. Genome-wide chromatin-binding experiments identify thousands of Yorkie sites, most of which are associated with elevated transcription, based on genome-wide analysis of messenger RNA and histone H3K4Me3 modification. Chromatin binding also supports extensive functional overlap between Yorkie and GAF. Our studies suggest a widespread role for Yorkie as a regulator of transcription and identify recruitment of the chromatin-modifying GAF protein and BRM complex as a molecular mechanism for transcriptional activation by Yorkie.
Zhang, W, Garcia N, Feng Y, Zhao H, Messing J.  2015.  Genome-wide histone acetylation correlates with active transcription in maize.. Genomics. 106(4):214-20. Abstract
Gene expression is regulated at many different levels during the life cycle of all plant species. Recent investigations have taken advantage of next-generation sequencing to study the relevance of DNA methylation and sRNAs in controlling tissue-specific gene expression in maize at the genome-wide level. Here, we profiled H3K27ac in maize, which has one of the largest sequenced plant genomes due to the amplification of retrotransposons. Because transcribed genes represent only a small proportion of its genome, gene-specific epigenetic modifications are concentrated in a relatively small percentage of the genome. Indeed, H3K27ac marks are mostly in gene-rich, in contrast to gene-poor regions. A large proportion of those marks are located in transcribed regions of genes, including 111 out of 458 known genetic loci. Moreover, increased transcription correlates with the presence of H3K27ac modification in gene bodies. Using maize as an example, we suggest that H3K27ac marks actively transcribed genes in plants.
Yang, M, Nelson D, Funakoshi Y, Padgett RW.  2004.  Genome-wide microarray analysis of TGFβ signaling in the Drosophila brain. BMC developmental biology. 4:14. AbstractWebsite
BACKGROUND: Members of TGFbeta superfamily are found to play important roles in many cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, development, apoptosis, and cancer. In Drosophila, there are seven ligands that function through combinations of three type I receptors and two type II receptors. These signals can be roughly grouped into two major TGFbeta pathways, the dpp/BMP and activin pathways, which signal primarily through thick veins (tkv) and baboon (babo). Few downstream targets are known for either pathway, especially targets expressed in the Drosophila brain. RESULTS: tkv and babo both affect the growth of tissues, but have varying effects on patterning. We have identified targets for the tkv and babo pathways by employing microarray techniques using activated forms of the receptors expressed in the brain. In these experiments, we compare the similarities of target genes of these two pathways in the brain. About 500 of 13,500 examined genes changed expression at 95% confidence level (P < 0.05). Twenty-seven genes are co-regulated 1.5 fold by both the tkv and babo pathways. These regulated genes cluster into various functional groups such as DNA/RNA binding, signal transducers, enzymes, transcription regulators, and neuronal regulators. RNAi knockdown experiments of homologs of several of these genes show abnormal growth regulation, suggesting these genes may execute the growth properties of TGFbeta. CONCLUSIONS: Our genomic-wide microarray analysis has revealed common targets for the tkv and babo pathways and provided new insights into downstream effectors of two distinct TGFbeta like pathways. Many of these genes are novel and several genes are implicated in growth control. Among the genes regulated by both pathways is ultraspiracle, which further connects TGFbeta with neuronal remodeling.
Glukhov, AS, Krutilina AI, Shlyapnikov MG, Severinov K, Lavysh D, Kochetkov VV, McGrath JW, de Leeuwe C, Shaburova OV, Krylov VN et al..  2012.  Genomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida phage tf with localized single-strand DNA interruptions. PLoS One. 7:e51163.
Messing, J, Grossniklaus U.  1999.  Genomic imprinting in plants. Results and problems in cell differentiation. 25:23-40.Website
Wang, C, Shi X, Liu L, Li H, Ammiraju JS, Kudrna DA, Xiong W, Wang H, Dai Z, Zheng Y et al..  2013.  Genomic resources for gene discovery, functional genome annotation, and evolutionary studies of maize and its close relatives. Genetics. 195:723-37. AbstractWebsite
Maize is one of the most important food crops and a key model for genetics and developmental biology. A genetically anchored and high-quality draft genome sequence of maize inbred B73 has been obtained to serve as a reference sequence. To facilitate evolutionary studies in maize and its close relatives, much like the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) (www.OMAP.org) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) resource did for the rice community, we constructed BAC libraries for maize inbred lines Zheng58, Chang7-2, and Mo17 and maize wild relatives Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Tripsacum dactyloides. Furthermore, to extend functional genomic studies to maize and sorghum, we also constructed binary BAC (BIBAC) libraries for the maize inbred B73 and the sorghum landrace Nengsi-1. The BAC/BIBAC vectors facilitate transfer of large intact DNA inserts from BAC clones to the BIBAC vector and functional complementation of large DNA fragments. These seven Zea Map Alignment Project (ZMAP) BAC/BIBAC libraries have average insert sizes ranging from 92 to 148 kb, organellar DNA from 0.17 to 2.3%, empty vector rates between 0.35 and 5.56%, and genome equivalents of 4.7- to 8.4-fold. The usefulness of the Parviglumis and Tripsacum BAC libraries was demonstrated by mapping clones to the reference genome. Novel genes and alleles present in these ZMAP libraries can now be used for functional complementation studies and positional or homology-based cloning of genes for translational genomics.