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Xiang, X, Wu Y, Planta J, Messing J, Leustek T.  2017.  Overexpression of serine acetyltransferase in maize leaves increases seed-specific methionine-rich zeins. Plant biotechnology journal. Abstract
Maize kernels do not contain enough of the essential sulphur-amino acid methionine (Met) to serve as a complete diet for animals, even though maize has the genetic capacity to store Met in kernels. Prior studies indicated that the availability of the sulphur (S)-amino acids may limit their incorporation into seed storage proteins. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) is a key control point for S-assimilation leading to Cys and Met biosynthesis, and SAT overexpression is known to enhance S-assimilation without negative impact on plant growth. Therefore, we overexpressed Arabidopsis thaliana AtSAT1 in maize under control of the leaf bundle sheath cell-specific rbcS1 promoter to determine the impact on seed storage protein expression. The transgenic events exhibited up to 12-fold higher SAT activity without negative impact on growth. S-assimilation was increased in the leaves of SAT overexpressing plants, followed by higher levels of storage protein mRNA and storage proteins, particularly the 10-kDa δ-zein, during endosperm development. This zein is known to impact the level of Met stored in kernels. The elite event with the highest expression of AtSAT1 showed 1.40-fold increase in kernel Met. When fed to chickens, transgenic AtSAT1 kernels significantly increased growth rate compared with the parent maize line. The result demonstrates the efficacy of increasing maize nutritional value by SAT overexpression without apparent yield loss. Maternal overexpression of SAT in vegetative tissues was necessary for high-Met zein accumulation. Moreover, SAT overcomes the shortage of S-amino acids that limits the expression and accumulation of high-Met zeins during kernel development.
Xiao, Y, Wei X, Ebright R, Wall D.  2011.  Antibiotic production by myxobacteria plays a role in predation.. Journal of bacteriology. 193(18):4626-33. Abstract
Myxobacteria are predatory and are prolific producers of secondary metabolites. Here, we tested a hypothesized role that secondary metabolite antibiotics function as weapons in predation. To test this, a Myxococcus xanthus Δta1 mutant, blocked in antibiotic TA (myxovirescin) production, was constructed. This TA(-) mutant was defective in producing a zone of inhibition (ZOI) against Escherichia coli. This shows that TA is the major M. xanthus-diffusible antibacterial agent against E. coli. Correspondingly, the TA(-) mutant was defective in E. coli killing. Separately, an engineered E. coli strain resistant to TA was shown to be resistant toward predation. Exogenous addition of spectinomycin, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, rescued the predation defect of the TA(-) mutant. In contrast, against Micrococcus luteus the TA(-) mutant exhibited no defect in ZOI or killing. Thus, TA plays a selective role on prey species. To extend these studies to other myxobacteria, the role of antibiotic corallopyronin production in predation was tested and also found to be required for Corallococcus coralloides killing on E. coli. Next, a role of TA production in myxobacterial fitness was assessed by measuring swarm expansion. Here, the TA(-) mutant had a specific swarm rate reduction on prey lawns, and thus reduced fitness, compared to an isogenic TA(+) strain. Based on these observations, we conclude that myxobacterial antibiotic production can function as a predatory weapon. To our knowledge, this is the first report to directly show a link between secondary metabolite production and predation.
Xie, J, Pierce M, Gailus-Durner V, Wagner M, Winter E, Vershon AK.  1999.  Sum1 and Hst1 Repress Middle Sporulation-specific gene Expression During Mitosis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. EMBO J. 18:6448-6454. Abstract
Meiotic development in yeast is characterized by the sequential induction of temporally distinct classes of genes. Genes that are induced at the middle stages of the pathway share a promoter element, termed the middle sporulation element (MSE), which interacts with the Ndt80 transcriptional activator. We have found that a subclass of MSEs are strong repressor sites during mitosis. SUM1 and HST1, genes previously associated with transcriptional silencing, are required for MSE-mediated repression. Sum1 binds specifically in vitro to MSEs that function as strong repressor sites in vivo. Repression by Sum1 is gene specific and does not extend to neighboring genes. These results suggest that mechanisms used to silence large regions of chromatin may also be used to regulate the expression of specific genes during development. NDT80 is regulated during mitosis by both the Sum1 and Ume6 repressors. These results suggest that progression through sporulation may be controlled by the regulated competition between the Sum1 repressor and Ndt80 activator at key MSEs.
Xie, T, Finelli AL, Padgett RW.  1994.  The Drosophila saxophone gene: a serine-threonine kinase receptor of the TGF-β superfamily. Science (New York, NY). 263:1756-9. AbstractWebsite
The Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene encodes a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like protein that plays a key role in several aspects of development. Transduction of the DPP signal was investigated by cloning of serine-threonine kinase transmembrane receptors from Drosophila because this type of receptor is specific for the TGF-beta-like ligands. Here evidence is provided demonstrating that the Drosophila saxophone (sax) gene, a previously identified female sterile locus, encodes a TGF-beta-like type I receptor. Embryos from sax mothers and dpp embryos exhibit similar mutant phenotypes during early gastrulation, and these two loci exhibit genetic interactions, which suggest that they are utilized in the same pathway. These data suggest that sax encodes a receptor for dpp.
Xiong, W, He L, Li Y, Dooner HK, Du C.  2013.  InsertionMapper: a pipeline tool for the identification of targeted sequences from multidimensional high throughput sequencing data.. BMC genomics. 14:679. Abstract
The advent of next-generation high-throughput technologies has revolutionized whole genome sequencing, yet some experiments require sequencing only of targeted regions of the genome from a very large number of samples. These regions can be amplified by PCR and sequenced by next-generation methods using a multidimensional pooling strategy. However, there is at present no available generalized tool for the computational analysis of target-enriched NGS data from multidimensional pools.
Xiong, W, He L, Lai J, Dooner HK, Du C.  2014.  HelitronScanner uncovers a large overlooked cache of Helitron transposons in many genomes.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. DOI 10.1073/pnas.1410068111 AbstractWebsite
Transposons make up the bulk of eukaryotic genomes, but are difficult to annotate because they evolve rapidly. Most of the unannotated portion of sequenced genomes is probably made up of various divergent transposons that have yet to be categorized. Helitrons are unusual rolling circle eukaryotic transposons that often capture gene sequences, making them of considerable evolutionary importance. Unlike other DNA transposons, Helitrons do not end in inverted repeats or create target site duplications, so they are particularly challenging to identify. Here we present HelitronScanner, a two-layered local combinational variable (LCV) tool for generalized Helitron identification that represents a major improvement over previous identification programs based on DNA sequence or structure. HelitronScanner identified 64,654 Helitrons from a wide range of plant genomes in a highly automated way. We tested HelitronScanner’s predictive ability in maize, a species with highly heterogeneous Helitron elements. LCV scores for the 5’ and 3’ termini of the predicted Helitrons provide a primary confidence level and element copy number provides a secondary one. Newly identified Helitrons were validated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays or by in-silico comparative analysis of insertion site polymorphism among multiple accessions. Many new Helitrons were identified in model species, such as maize, rice, and Arabidopsis, and in a variety of organisms where Helitrons had not been reported previously, leading to a major upward reassessment of their abundance in plant genomes. HelitronScanner promises to be a valuable tool in future comparative and evolutionary studies of this major transposon superfamily.
Xu, Z, Yan X, Maurais S, Fu H, O'Brien DG, Mottinger J, Dooner HK.  2004.  Jittery, a Mutator distant relative with a paradoxical mobile behavior: excision without reinsertion. Plant Cell. 16:1105–1114. Abstract
The unstable mutation bz-m039 arose in a maize (Zea mays) stock that originated from a plant infected with barley stripe mosaic virus. The instability of the mutation is caused by a 3.9-kb mobile element that has been named Jittery (Jit). Jit has terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of 181 bp, causes a 9-bp direct duplication of the target site, and appears to excise autonomously. It is predicted to encode a single 709-amino acid protein, JITA, which is distantly related to the MURA transposase protein of the Mutator system but is more closely related to the MURA protein of Mutator-like elements (MULEs) from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). Like MULEs, Jit resembles Mutator in the length of the element's TIRs, the size of the target site duplication, and in the makeup of its transposase but differs from the autonomous element Mutator-Don Robertson in that it encodes a single protein. Jit also differs from Mutator elements in the high frequency with which it excises to produce germinal revertants and in its copy number in the maize genome: Jit-like TIRs are present at low copy number in all maize lines and teosinte accessions examined, and JITA sequences occur in only a few maize inbreds. However, Jit cannot be considered a bona fide transposon in its present host line because it does not leave footprints upon excision and does not reinsert in the genome. These unusual mobile element properties are discussed in light of the structure and gene organization of Jit and related elements.
Xu, JH, Messing J.  2008.  Organization of the prolamin gene family provides insight into the evolution of the maize genome and gene duplications in grass species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105:14330-5. AbstractWebsite
Zea mays, commonly known as corn, is perhaps the most greatly produced crop in terms of tonnage and a major food, feed, and biofuel resource. Here we analyzed its prolamin gene family, encoding the major seed storage proteins, as a model for gene evolution by syntenic alignments with sorghum and rice, two genomes that have been sequenced recently. Because a high-density gene map has been constructed for maize inbred B73, all prolamin gene copies can be identified in their chromosomal context. Alignment of respective chromosomal regions of these species via conserved genes allow us to identify the pedigree of prolamin gene copies in space and time. Its youngest and largest gene family, the alpha prolamins, arose about 22-26 million years ago (Mya) after the split of the Panicoideae (including maize, sorghum, and millet) from the Pooideae (including wheat, barley, and oats) and Oryzoideae (rice). The first dispersal of alpha prolamin gene copies occurred before the split of the progenitors of maize and sorghum about 11.9 Mya. One of the two progenitors of maize gained a new alpha zein locus, absent in the other lineage, to form a nonduplicated locus in maize after allotetraplodization about 4.8 Mya. But dispersed copies gave rise to tandem duplications through uneven expansion and gene silencing of this gene family in maize and sorghum, possibly because of maize's greater recombination and mutation rates resulting from its diploidization process. Interestingly, new gene loci in maize represent junctions of ancestral chromosome fragments and sites of new centromeres in sorghum and rice.
Xu, J-H, Liu Q, Hu W, Wang T, Xue Q, Messing J.  2015.  Dynamics of chloroplast genomes in green plants.. Genomics. 106(4):221-31. Abstract
Chloroplasts are essential organelles, in which genes have widely been used in the phylogenetic analysis of green plants. Here, we took advantage of the breadth of plastid genomes (cpDNAs) sequenced species to investigate their dynamic changes. Our study showed that gene rearrangements occurred more frequently in the cpDNAs of green algae than in land plants. Phylogenetic trees were generated using 55 conserved protein-coding genes including 33 genes for photosynthesis, 16 ribosomal protein genes and 6 other genes, which supported the monophyletic evolution of vascular plants, land plants, seed plants, and angiosperms. Moreover, we could show that seed plants were more closely related to bryophytes rather than pteridophytes. Furthermore, the substitution rate for cpDNA genes was calculated to be 3.3×10(-10), which was almost 10 times lower than genes of nuclear genomes, probably because of the plastid homologous recombination machinery.
Xu, JH, Bennetzen JL, Messing J.  2012.  Dynamic gene copy number variation in collinear regions of grass genomes. Mol Biol Evol. 29:861-71. AbstractWebsite
A salient feature of genomes of higher organisms is the birth and death of gene copies. An example is the alpha prolamin genes, which encode seed storage proteins in grasses (Poaceae) and represent a medium-size gene family. To better understand the mechanism, extent, and pace of gene amplification, we compared prolamin gene copies in the genomes of two different tribes in the Panicoideae, the Paniceae and the Andropogoneae. We identified alpha prolamin (setarin) gene copies in the diploid foxtail millet (Paniceae) genome (490 Mb) and compared them with orthologous regions in diploid sorghum (730 Mb) and ancient allotetraploid maize (2,300 Mb) (Andropogoneae). Because sequenced genomes of other subfamilies of Poaceae like rice (389 Mb) (Ehrhartoideae) and Brachypodium (272 Mb) (Pooideae) do not have alpha prolamin genes, their collinear regions can serve as "empty" reference sites. A pattern emerged, where genes were copied and inserted into other chromosomal locations followed by additional tandem duplications (clusters). We observed both recent (species-specific) insertion events and older ones that are shared by these tribes. Many older copies were deleted by unequal crossing over of flanking sequences or damaged by truncations. However, some remain intact with active and inactive alleles. These results indicate that genomes reflect only a snapshot of the gene content of a species and are far less static than conventional genetics has suggested. Nucleotide substitution rates for active alpha prolamins genes were twice as high as for low copy number beta, gamma, and delta prolamin genes, suggesting that gene amplification accelerates the pace of divergence.
Xu, Z, Dooner HK.  2006.  The maize aberrant pollen transmission 1 gene is a SABRE/KIP homolog required for pollen tube growth. Genetics. 172:1251–1261. Abstract
1 microm/sec. We describe here a gene required to attain that striking rate. The aberrant pollen transmission 1 (apt1) gene of maize was identified by an Ac-tagged mutation that displayed a severe pollen transmission deficit in heterozygotes. Rare apt1 homozygotes can be recovered, aided by phenotypic selection for Ac homozygotes. Half of the pollen in heterozygotes and most of the pollen in homozygotes germinate short and twisted pollen tubes. The apt1 gene is 26 kb long, makes an 8.6-kb pollen-specific transcript spliced from 22 exons, and encodes a protein of 2607 amino acids. The APT1 protein is homologous to SABRE and KIP, Arabidopsis proteins of unknown function involved in the elongation of root cortex cells and pollen tubes, respectively. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrates that APT1 colocalizes with a Golgi protein marker in growing tobacco pollen tubes. We hypothesize that the APT1 protein is involved in membrane trafficking and is required for the high secretory demands of tip growth in pollen tubes. The apt1-m1(Ac) mutable allele is an excellent tool for selecting Ac transpositions because of the strong negative selection pressure operating against the parental Ac site.
Xu, A, Haines N, Dlugosz M, Rana NA, Takeuchi H, Haltiwanger RS, Irvine KD.  2007.  In vitro reconstitution of the modulation of Drosophila Notch-ligand binding by Fringe. The Journal of biological chemistry. 282:35153-62. AbstractWebsite
Notch signaling plays critical roles in animal development and physiology. The activation of Notch receptors by their ligands is modulated by Fringe-dependent glycosylation. Fringe catalyzes the addition of N-acetylglucosamine in a beta1,3 linkage onto O-fucose on epidermal growth factor-like domains. This modification of Notch by Fringe influences the binding of Notch ligands to Notch receptors. However, prior studies have relied on in vivo glycosylation, leaving unresolved the question of whether addition of N-acetylglucosamine is sufficient to modulate Notch-ligand interactions on its own, or whether instead it serves as a precursor to subsequent post-translational modifications. Here, we describe the results of in vitro assays using purified components of the Drosophila Notch signaling pathway. In vitro glycosylation and ligand binding studies establish that the addition of N-acetylglucosamine onto O-fucose in vitro is sufficient both to enhance Notch binding to the Delta ligand and to inhibit Notch binding to the Serrate ligand. Further elongation by galactose does not detectably influence Notch-ligand binding in vitro. Consistent with these observations, carbohydrate compositional analysis and mass spectrometry on Notch isolated from cells identified only N-acetylglucosamine added onto Notch in the presence of Fringe. These observations argue against models in which Fringe-dependent glycosylation modulates Notch signaling by acting as a precursor to subsequent modifications and instead establish the simple addition of N-acetylglucosamine as a basis for the effects of Fringe on Drosophila Notch-ligand binding.
Xu, J-H, Messing J.  2008.  Diverged Copies of the Seed Regulatory Opaque-2 Gene by a Segmental Duplication in the Progenitor Genome of Rice, Sorghum, and Maize. Mol Plant %R 10.1093/mp/ssn038. 1:760-769. AbstractWebsite
Comparative analyses of the sequence of entire genomes have shown that gene duplications, chromosomal segmental duplications, or even whole genome duplications (WGD) have played prominent roles in the evolution of many eukaryotic species. Here, we used the ancient duplication of a well known transcription factor in maize, encoded by the Opaque-2 (O2) locus, to examine the general features of divergences of chromosomal segmental duplications in a lineage-specific manner. We took advantage of contiguous chromosomal sequence information in rice (Oryza sativa, Nipponbare), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, Btx623), and maize (Zea mays, B73) that were aligned by conserved gene order (synteny). This analysis showed that the maize O2 locus is contained within a 1.25 million base-pair (Mb) segment on chromosome 7, which was duplicated {approx}56 million years ago (mya) before the split of rice and maize 50 mya. The duplicated region on chromosome 1 is only half the size and contains the maize OHP gene, which does not restore the o2 mutation although it encodes a protein with the same DNA and protein binding properties in endosperm. The segmental duplication is not only found in rice, but also in sorghum, which split from maize 11.9 mya. A detailed analysis of the duplicated regions provided examples for complex rearrangements including deletions, duplications, conversions, inversions, and translocations. Furthermore, the rice and sorghum genomes appeared to be more stable than the maize genome, probably because maize underwent allotetraploidization and then diploidization.
Xu, A, Irvine KD.  2014.  Notch-ligand binding assays in Drosophila cells.. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, NJ). 1187:277-284. AbstractWebsite
Activation of the Drosophila transmembrane receptor protein Notch is induced by association with its transmembrane ligands, Delta and Serrate. The ability to assay binding between Notch and its ligands has been essential for characterizing the influence of posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation, as well as for characterizing structural motifs involved in receptor-ligand interactions. We describe here a simple, widely used method for assaying receptor-ligand binding. This method involves expression of soluble forms of either Notch or its ligands, comprising the extracellular domains fused to an easily assayed tag, the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. These soluble proteins are then incubated with their binding partners, either as transmembrane proteins expressed on the surface of cultured cells or as extracellular protein domains attached to agarose beads. After washing, the amount of bound protein can be readily assayed by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity.
Xu, Z, Dooner HK.  2005.  Mx-rMx, a family of interacting transposons in the growing hAT superfamily of maize. Plant Cell. 17:375–388. Abstract
More than half a century after the discovery of transposable elements, the number of genetically defined autonomous elements that have been isolated and characterized molecularly in any one species remains surprisingly small. Because of its rich genetic history, maize (Zea mays) is, by far, the plant with the largest number of such elements. Yet, even in maize, a maximum of only two autonomous elements have been characterized in any transposon superfamily. This article describes the isolation and molecular and genetic characterization of Mx (for mobile element induced by x-rays), a third autonomous member of the hAT transposon superfamily in maize. Mx is 3731 bp long, ends in 13-bp terminal inverted repeats (TIRs), and causes an 8-bp duplication of the target site. Mx and rMx (for responder to Mx), its 571-bp nonautonomous partner, define a classical family of interacting transposable elements. Surprisingly, the TIRs of Mx and rMx are only 73% identical, and the subterminal sequences are even less so, suggesting that Mx and rMx may represent diverging transposable elements still capable of mobilization by the same transposase. Sequences that are closer to the ends of either Mx or rMx are present in the maize genome. Mx is predicted to encode a 674-amino acid protein that is homologous to the Ac transposase. Although Mx and Ac are closely related, they do not interact. Other data suggest that maize may possess at least five families of hAT transposons that do not interact with each other. The possible origin of noninteracting transposon families within the same superfamily is discussed.
Xu, A, Lei L, Irvine KD.  2005.  Regions of Drosophila Notch that contribute to ligand binding and the modulatory influence of Fringe. The Journal of biological chemistry. 280:30158-65. AbstractWebsite
Two glycosyltransferases that transfer sugars to epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains, OFUT1 and Fringe, regulate Notch signaling. To characterize the impact of glycosylation at the 23 consensus O-fucose sites in Drosophila Notch, we conducted deletion mapping and site-specific mutagenesis and then assayed the binding of soluble forms of Notch to cell-surface ligands. Our results support the conclusion that EGF11 and EGF12 are essential for ligand binding, but indicate that other EGF domains also make substantial contributions to ligand binding. Characterization of Notch deletion constructs and O-fucose site mutants further revealed that no single site or region can account for the influence of Fringe on Notch-ligand binding. Additionally, we observed an influence of Fringe on a Notch fragment including only 4 of its 36 EGF domains (EGF10-13). Together, our observations imply that glycosylation influences Notch-ligand interactions through a distributive mechanism that involves local interactions with multiple EGF domains and led us to suggest a structural model for how Notch interacts with its ligands.
Xu, JH, Messing J.  2009.  Amplification of prolamin storage protein genes in different subfamilies of the Poaceae. Theor Appl Genet. AbstractWebsite
Prolamins are seed storage proteins in cereals and represent an important source of essential amino acids for feed and food. Genes encoding these proteins resulted from dispersed and tandem amplification. While previous studies have concentrated on protein sequences from different grass species, we now can add a new perspective to their relationships by asking how their genes are shared by ancestry and copied in different lineages of the same family of species. These differences are derived from alignment of chromosomal regions, where collinearity is used to identify prolamin genes in syntenic positions, also called orthologous gene copies. New or paralogous gene copies are inserted in tandem or new locations of the same genome. More importantly, one can detect the loss of older genes. We analyzed chromosomal intervals containing prolamin genes from rice, sorghum, wheat, barley, and Brachypodium, representing different subfamilies of the Poaceae. The Poaceae commonly known as the grasses includes three major subfamilies, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), Pooideae (wheat, barley, and Brachypodium), and Panicoideae (millets, maize, sorghum, and switchgrass). Based on chromosomal position and sequence divergence, it becomes possible to infer the order of gene amplification events. Furthermore, the loss of older genes in different subfamilies seems to permit a faster pace of divergence of paralogous genes. Change in protein structure affects their physical properties, subcellular location, and amino acid composition. On the other hand, regulatory sequence elements and corresponding transcriptional activators of new gene copies are more conserved than coding sequences, consistent with the tissue-specific expression of these genes.
Xu, J-H, Wang R, Li X, Miclaus M, Messing J.  2016.  Locus- and Site-Specific DNA Methylation of 19 kDa Zein Genes in Maize.. PloS one. 11(1):e0146416. Abstract
An interesting question in maize development is why only a single zein gene is highly expressed in each of the 19-kDa zein gene clusters (A and B types), z1A2-1 and z1B4, in the immature endosperm. For instance, epigenetic marks could provide a structural difference. Therefore, we investigated the DNA methylation of the arrays of gene copies in both promoter and gene body regions of leaf (non-expressing tissue as a control), normal endosperm, and cultured endosperm. Although we could show that expressed genes have much lower methylation levels in promoter regions than silent ones in both leaf and normal endosperm, there was surprisingly also a difference in the pattern of the z1A and z1B gene clusters. The expression of z1B gene is suppressed by increased DNA methylation and activated with reduced DNA methylation, whereas z1A gene expression is not. DNA methylation in gene coding regions is higher in leaf than in endosperm, whereas no significant difference is observed in gene bodies between expressed and non-expressed gene copies. A median CHG methylation (25-30%) appears to be optimal for gene expression. Moreover, tissue-cultured endosperm can reset the DNA methylation pattern and tissue-specific gene expression. These results reveal that DNA methylation changes of the 19-kDa zein genes is subject to plant development and tissue culture treatment, but varies in different chromosomal locations, indicating that DNA methylation changes do not apply to gene expression in a uniform fashion. Because tissue culture is used to produce transgenic plants, these studies provide new insights into variation of gene expression of integrated sequences.
Xu, Y, Guerra TL, Li Z, Ludwig M, Dismukes CG, Bryant DA.  2013.  Altered carbohydrate metabolism in glycogen synthase mutants of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002: Cell factories for soluble sugars.. Metabolic engineering. 16:56-67. Abstract
Glycogen and compatible solutes are the major polymeric and soluble carbohydrates in cyanobacteria and function as energy reserves and osmoprotectants, respectively. Glycogen synthase null mutants (glgA-I glgA-II) were constructed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. Under standard conditions the double mutant produced no glycogen and more soluble sugars. When grown under hypersaline conditions, the glgA-I glgA-II mutant accumulated 1.8-fold more soluble sugars (sucrose and glucosylglycer-(ol/ate)) than WT, and these cells spontaneously excreted soluble sugars into the medium at high levels without the need for additional transporters. An average of 27% more soluble sugars was released from the glgA-I glgA-II mutant than WT by hypo-osmotic shock. Extracellular vesicles budding from the outer membrane were observed by transmission electron microscopy in glgA-I glgA-II cells grown under hypersaline conditions. The glgA-I glgA-II mutant serves as a starting point for developing cell factories for photosynthetic production and excretion of sugars.