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Haberer, G, Young S, Bharti AK, Gundlach H, Raymond C, Fuks G, Butler E, Wing RA, Rounsley S, Birren B et al..  2005.  Structure and architecture of the maize genome. Plant physiology. 139:1612-24. AbstractWebsite
Maize (Zea mays or corn) plays many varied and important roles in society. It is not only an important experimental model plant, but also a major livestock feed crop and a significant source of industrial products such as sweeteners and ethanol. In this study we report the systematic analysis of contiguous sequences of the maize genome. We selected 100 random regions averaging 144 kb in size, representing about 0.6% of the genome, and generated a high-quality dataset for sequence analysis. This sampling contains 330 annotated genes, 91% of which are supported by expressed sequence tag data from maize and other cereal species. Genes averaged 4 kb in size with five exons, although the largest was over 59 kb with 31 exons. Gene density varied over a wide range from 0.5 to 10.7 genes per 100 kb and genes did not appear to cluster significantly. The total repetitive element content we observed (66%) was slightly higher than previous whole-genome estimates (58%-63%) and consisted almost exclusively of retroelements. The vast majority of genes can be aligned to at least one sequence read derived from gene-enrichment procedures, but only about 30% are fully covered. Our results indicate that much of the increase in genome size of maize relative to rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is attributable to an increase in number of both repetitive elements and genes.
Haines, N, Irvine KD.  2005.  Functional analysis of Drosophila beta1,4-N-acetlygalactosaminyltransferases. Glycobiology. 15:335-46. AbstractWebsite
Members of the mammalian beta1,4-galactosyltransferase family are among the best studied glycosyltransferases, but the requirements for all members of this family within an animal have not previously been determined. Here, we describe analysis of two Drosophila genes, beta4GalNAcTA (CG8536) and beta4GalNAcTB (CG14517), that are homologous to mammalian beta1,4-galactosyltransferases. Like their mammalian homologs, these glycosyltransferases use N-acetylglucosamine as an acceptor substrate. However, they transfer N-acetylgalactosamine rather than galactose. This activity, together with amino acid sequence similarity, places them among a group of recently identified invertebrate beta1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases. To investigate the biological functions of these genes, null mutations were generated by imprecise excision of a transposable element (beta4GalNAcTA) or by gene-targeted homologous recombination (beta4GalNAcTB). Flies mutant for beta4GalNAcTA are viable and fertile but display behavioral phenotypes suggestive of essential roles for GalNAc-beta1,4-GlcNAc containing glycoconjugates in neuronal and/or muscular function. beta4GalNAcTB mutants are viable and display no evident morphological or behavioral phenotypes. Flies doubly mutant for both genes display only the behavioral phenotypes associated with mutation of beta4GalNAcTA. Thus Drosophila homologs of the mammalian beta4GalT family are essential for neuromuscular physiology or development but are not otherwise required for viability, fertility, or external morphology.
Haines, N, Irvine KD.  2003.  Glycosylation regulates Notch signalling. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 4:786-97. AbstractWebsite
Intracellular post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation have been well studied for their roles in regulating diverse signalling pathways, but we are only just beginning to understand how differential glycosylation is used to regulate intercellular signalling. Recent studies make clear that extracellular post-translational modifications, in the form of glycosylation, are essential for the Notch signalling pathway, and that differences in the extent of glycosylation are a significant mechanism by which this pathway is regulated.
Hanlon, SE, Norris DN, Vershon AK.  2003.  Depletion of H2A-H2b Dimers in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Triggers Meiotic Arrest by Reducing IME1 Expression and Activating the BUB2-dependent Branch of the Spindle Checkpoint. Genetics. 164:1333-1344. Abstract
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, diploid strains carrying homozygous hta1-htb1Delta mutations express histone H2A-H2B dimers at a lower level than do wild-type cells. Although this mutation has only minor effects on mitotic growth, it causes an arrest in sporulation prior to the first meiotic division. In this report, we show that the hta1-htb1Delta mutant exhibits reduced expression of early and middle-sporulation-specific genes and that the meiotic arrest of the hta1-htb1Delta mutant can be partially bypassed by overexpression of IME1. Additionally, deletions of BUB2 or BFA1, components of one branch of the spindle checkpoint pathway, bypass the meiotic arrest. Mutations in the other branch of the pathway or in the pachytene checkpoint are unable to suppress the meiotic block. These observations indicate that depletion of the H2A-H2B dimer blocks sporulation by at least two mechanisms: disruption of the expression of meiotic regulatory genes and activation of the spindle checkpoint. Our results show that the failure to progress through the meiotic pathway is not the result of global chromosomal alterations but that specific aspects of meiosis are sensitive to depletion of the H2A-H2B dimer.
Hanlon, SE, Xu Z, Norris DN, Vershon AK.  2004.  Analysis of the Meiotic role of the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins Mrps17 and Mrpl37 in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Yeast. 21:1241-1252. Abstract
Sporulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a complex and tightly regulated pathway that involves the induction of a large number of genes. We have identified MRPS17 in a cDNA library enriched for sporulation-specific genes. Homology searches show that the first one-third of Mrps17 has strong sequence similarity to bacterial S17 proteins, suggesting that Mrps17 is a potential mitochondrial ribosomal protein. This is further supported by the fact that mrps17Delta cells are respiratory-deficient and that a Mrps17-GFP fusion localizes to the mitochondria. We have confirmed by Northern blot analysis that both MRPS17 and MRPL37 are strongly induced during the middle stages of sporulation and that this induction is dependent on the presence of a middle sporulation element (MSE) in the promoters of these genes. Interestingly, we found that Mrps17 and Mrpl37, but not other mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, accumulate during the middle stages of sporulation. These results suggest that Mrps17 and Mrpl37 may have additional meiosis-specific roles.
Hari, KL, Santerre A, Sekelsky JJ, McKim KS, Boyd JB, Hawley RS.  1995.  The mei-41 gene of D. melanogaster is a structural and function homolog of the human ataxia telangiectasia gene. Cell. 82:815-821.
Harrison-McMonagle, P, Denissova N, Martínez-Hackert E, Ebright RH, Stock AM.  1999.  Orientation of OmpR monomers within an OmpR:DNA complex determined by DNA affinity cleaving.. Journal of molecular biology. 285(2):555-66. Abstract
Escherichia coli OmpR is a transcription factor that regulates the differential expression of the porin genes ompF and ompC. Phosphorylated OmpR binds as a dimer to a 20-bp region of DNA consisting of two tandemly arranged 10-bp half-sites. Expression of the ompF gene is achieved by the hierarchical occupation of three adjacent 20-bp binding sites, designated F1, F2, and F3 and a distally located site, F4. Despite genetic, biochemical, and structural studies, specific details of the interaction between phosphorylated OmpR and the DNA remain unknown. We have linked the DNA cleaving moiety o-phenanthroline-copper to eight different sites within the DNA binding domain of OmpR in order to determine the orientation of the two OmpR monomers in the OmpR:F1 complex. Five of the resulting conjugates exhibited DNA cleaving activity, and four of these yielded patterns that could be used to construct a model of the OmpR:F1 complex. We propose that OmpR binds asymmetrically to the F1 site as a tandemly arranged dimer with each monomer having its recognition helix in the major groove. The N-terminal end of the recognition helix is promoter-proximal and flanked by "wings" W1 and W2 positioned proximally and distally, respectively, to the transcription start site of ompF. We further propose that the C-terminal end of the recognition helix makes the most extensive contacts with DNA and predict bases within the F1 site that are sufficiently close to be contacted by the recognition helix.
Hart, B, Mathias JR, Ott D, McNaughton L, Anderson JS, Vershon AK, Baxter SM.  2002.  Engineered Improvements in DNA-binding Function of the MATa1 Homeodomain Reveal Structural Changes Involved in Combinatorial Control. J Mol Biol. 316:247-256. Abstract
We have engineered enhanced DNA-binding function into the a1 homeodomain by making changes in a loop distant from the DNA-binding surface. Comparison of the free and bound a1 structures suggested a mechanism linking van der Waals stacking changes in this loop to the ordering of a final turn in the DNA-binding helix of a1. Inspection of the protein sequence revealed striking differences in amino acid identity at positions 24 and 25 compared to related homeodomain proteins. These positions lie in the loop connecting helix-1 and helix-2, which is involved in heterodimerization with the alpha 2 protein. A series of single and double amino acid substitutions (a1-Q24R, a1-S25Y, a1-S25F and a1-Q24R/S25Y) were engineered, expressed and purified for biochemical and biophysical study. Calorimetric measurements and HSQC NMR spectra confirm that the engineered variants are folded and are equally or more stable than the wild-type a1 homeodomain. NMR analysis of a1-Q24R/S25Y demonstrates that the DNA recognition helix (helix-3) is extended by at least one turn as a result of the changes in the loop connecting helix-1 and helix-2. As shown by EMSA, the engineered variants bind DNA with enhanced affinity (16-fold) in the absence of the alpha 2 cofactor and the variant alpha 2/a1 heterodimers bind cognate DNA with specificity and affinity reflective of the enhanced a1 binding affinity. Importantly, in vivo assays demonstrate that the a1-Q24R/S25Y protein binds with fivefold greater affinity than wild-type a1 and is able to partially suppress defects in repression by alpha 2 mutants. As a result of these studies, we show how subtle differences in residues at a surface distant from the functional site code for a conformational switch that allows the a1 homeodomain to become active in DNA binding in association with its cofactor alpha 2.
Hassan, HM, Degen D, Jang K H, Ebright RH, Fenical W.  2015.  Salinamide F, new depsipeptide antibiotic and inhibitor of bacterial RNA polymerase from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.. The Journal of antibiotics. 68(3):206-9.
Hawkins, JS, Delgado V, Feng L, Carlise M, Dooner HK, Bennetzen JL.  2014.  Variation in allelic expression associated with a recombination hotspot in Zea mays.. The Plant Journal, DOI: 10.1111/tpj.12537. Abstract
Gene expression is a complex process, requiring precise spatial and temporal regulation of transcription factor activity; however, modifications of individual cis- and trans-acting modules can be molded by natural selection to create a sizeable number of novel phenotypes. Results from decades of research indicate that developmental and phenotypic divergence among eukaryotic organisms is driven primarily by variation in levels of gene expression that are dictated by mutations either in structural or regulatory regions of genes. The relative contributions and interplay of cis- and trans-acting regulatory factors to this evolutionary process, however, remain poorly understood. Analysis of 8 genes in the Bz1-Sh1 interval of maize indicates significant allele-specific expression biases in at least one tissue for all genes, ranging from 1.3-fold to 36-fold. All detected effects were cis-regulatory in nature, although genetic background may also influence the level of expression bias and tissue specificity for some allelic combinations. Most allelic pairs exhibited the same direction and approximate intensity of bias across all four tissues; however, a subset of allelic pairs show alternating dominance across different tissue types or variation in the degree of bias in different tissues. In addition, the genes showing the most striking levels of allelic bias co-localize with a previously described recombination hotspot in this region, suggesting a naturally occurring genetic mechanism for creating regulatory variability for a subset of plant genes that may ultimately lead to evolutionary diversification.
Hawley, RS, McKim KS, Arbel T.  1993.  Meiotic segregation in Drosophila melanogasterfemales: molecules, mechanisms and myths. Ann. Rev. Genet.. 27:281-317.
Hawley, RS, Irick HA, Zitron AE, Haddox DA, Lohe AR, New C, Whitley MD, Arbel T, Jang JK, McKim KS et al..  1993.  There are two mechanisms of achiasmate segregation in Drosophila females, one of which requires heterochromatic homology. Developmental Genetics. 13:440-467.
He, L., Dooner HK.  2009.  Haplotype structure strongly affects recombination in a maize genetic interval polymorphic for Helitron and retrotransposon insertions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 106:8410–8416. Abstract
We have asked here how the remarkable variation in maize haplotype structure affects recombination. We compared recombination across a genetic interval of 9S in 2 highly dissimilar heterozygotes that shared 1 parent. The genetic interval in the common haplotype is approximately 100 kb long and contains 6 genes interspersed with gene-fragment-bearing Helitrons and retrotransposons that, together, comprise 70% of its length. In one heterozygote, most intergenic insertions are homozygous, although polymorphic, enabling us to determine whether any recombination junctions fall within them. In the other, most intergenic insertions are hemizygous and, thus, incapable of homologous recombination. Our analysis of the frequency and distribution of recombination in the interval revealed that: (i) Most junctions were circumscribed to the gene space, where they showed a highly nonuniform distribution. In both heterozygotes, more than half of the junctions fell in the stc1 gene, making it a clear recombination hotspot in the region. However, the genetic size of stc1 was 2-fold lower when flanked by a hemizygous 25-kb retrotransposon cluster. (ii) No junctions fell in the hypro1 gene in either heterozygote, making it a genic recombination coldspot. (iii) No recombination occurred within the gene fragments borne on Helitrons nor within retrotransposons, so neither insertion class contributes to the interval's genetic length. (iv) Unexpectedly, several junctions fell in an intergenic region not shared by all 3 haplotypes. (v) In general, the ability of a sequence to recombine correlated inversely with its methylation status. Our results show that haplotypic structural variability strongly affects the frequency and distribution of recombination events in maize.
Heidecker, G, Chaudhuri S, Messing J.  1991.  Highly clustered zein gene sequences reveal evolutionary history of the multigene family. Genomics. 10:719-32. AbstractWebsite
We have determined the nucleotide sequences of zein cDNA clones ZG14, ZG15, and ZG35. The three clones have 95 to 98% homology to the previously published sequence of clone A20, and 84% homology to sequences of the zein subfamily A30. Comparison of all sequences of the A30 and A20 subfamilies highlights the following features: the 5' nontranslated regions are 68 and 57 nucleotides in length for the A20- and A30-like mRNAs, respectively, and contain at least three repeats of the consensus sequence ACGAACAAta/gG; the majority of these genes are highly clustered as judged from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of high molecular weight maize DNA. Furthermore, we discuss a model for the evolution of the multigene family which stresses the special importance of unequal crossingover and gene conversion in this system.
Heidecker, G, Messing J, Gronenborn B.  1980.  A versatile primer for DNA sequencing in the M13mp2 cloning system. Gene. 10:69-73. AbstractWebsite
A primer for DNA sequencing by the chain-termination method in the M13mp2 cloning system was constructed and amplified. The primer was isolated as an EcoRI/AluI restriction fragment. After conversion of the AluI end into an EcoRI end the fragment was cloned in pBR325 from which it can be recovered by cleavage with EcoRI. The primer hybridizes to the single-stranded DNA of the mature M13mp2 phage next to the site of insertion thereby directing DNA synthesis along the inserted DNA.
Heyduk, T, Lee JC, Ebright YW, Blatter EE, Zhou Y, Ebright RH.  1993.  CAP interacts with RNA polymerase in solution in the absence of promoter DNA.. Nature. 364(6437):548-9. Abstract
Protein-protein interactions between transcription activator proteins and RNA polymerase or basal transcription factors have been suggested to be important for transcription activation. Interactions between catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) and RNA polymerase have been proposed based on face-of-helix-dependent transcription activation by CAP and based on face-of-helix-dependent cooperative binding of CAP and RNA polymerase to promoter DNA. Mutants of CAP specifically defective in transcription activation have been isolated (mutants defective in transcription activation, but not defective in DNA binding and DNA bending). All such mutants contain amino-acid substitutions within a surface loop consisting of amino acids 152 to 166 of CAP. Here we use the thermodynamically rigorous technique of fluorescence polarization to show that CAP interacts with RNA polymerase in solution in the absence of promoter DNA (KD,app = 2.8 x 10(-7) M), whereas [Ala158]CAP, a mutant of CAP specifically defective in transcription activation, does not.
Heyduk, T, Ma Y, Tang H, Ebright RH.  1996.  Fluorescence anisotropy: rapid, quantitative assay for protein-DNA and protein-protein interaction.. Methods in enzymology. 274:492-503.
Heyduk, T, Heyduk E, Severinov K, Tang H, Ebright RH.  1996.  Determinants of RNA polymerase alpha subunit for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma subunits: hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93(19):10162-6. Abstract
Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha subunit serves as the initiator for RNAP assembly, which proceeds according to the pathway 2 alpha-->alpha 2-->alpha 2 beta-->alpha 2 beta beta'-->alpha 2 beta beta' sigma. In this work, we have used hydroxyl-radical protein footprinting to define determinants of alpha for interaction with beta, beta', and sigma. Our results indicate that amino acids 30-75 of alpha are protected from hydroxyl-radical-mediated proteolysis upon interaction with beta (i.e., in alpha 2 beta, alpha 2 beta beta', and alpha 2 beta beta' sigma), and amino acids 175-210 of alpha are protected from hydroxyl-radical-mediated proteolysis upon interaction with beta' (i.e., in alpha 2 beta beta' and alpha 2 beta beta' sigma). The protected regions are conserved in the alpha homologs of prokaryotic, eukaryotic, archaeal, and chloroplast RNAPs and contain sites of substitutions that affect RNAP assembly. We conclude that the protected regions define determinants of alpha for direct functional interaction with beta and beta'. The observed maximal magnitude of protection upon interaction with beta and the observed maximal magnitude of protection upon interaction with beta' both correspond to the expected value for complete protection of one of the two alpha protomers of RNAP (i.e., 50% protection). We propose that only one of the two alpha protomers of RNAP interacts with beta and that only one of the two alpha protomers of RNAP interacts with beta'.
Hillier, W, McConnell I, Badger MR, Boussac A, Klimov VV, Dismukes CG, Wydrzynski T.  2006.  Quantitative Assessment of Intrinsic Carbonic Anhydrase Activity and the Capacity for Bicarbonate Oxidation in Photosystem II†. Biochemistry. 45:2094-2102. AbstractWebsite
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Ho, MX, Hudson BP, Das K, Arnold E, Ebright RH.  2009.  Structures of RNA polymerase-antibiotic complexes.. Current opinion in structural biology. 19(6):715-23. Abstract
Inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an established strategy for antituberculosis therapy and broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. Crystal structures of RNAP-inhibitor complexes are available for four classes of antibiotics: rifamycins, sorangicin, streptolydigin, and myxopyronin. The structures define three different targets, and three different mechanisms, for inhibition of bacterial RNAP: (1) rifamycins and sorangicin bind near the RNAP active center and block extension of RNA products; (2) streptolydigin interacts with a target that overlaps the RNAP active center and inhibits conformational cycling of the RNAP active center; and (3) myxopyronin interacts with a target remote from the RNAP active center and functions by interfering with opening of the RNAP active-center cleft to permit entry and unwinding of DNA and/or by interfering with interactions between RNAP and the DNA template strand. The structures enable construction of homology models of pathogen RNAP-antibiotic complexes, enable in silico screening for new antibacterial agents, and enable rational design of improved antibacterial agents.
Holder, AA, Taylor P, Magnusen AR, Moffett ET, Meyer K, Hong Y, Ramsdale SE, Gordon M, Stubbs J, Seymour LA et al..  2013.  Preliminary anti-cancer photodynamic therapeutic in vitro studies with mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes.. Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003). 42(33):11881-99. Abstract
We report the synthesis and characterisation of mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes, which were used as potential photodynamic therapeutic agents for melanoma cell growth inhibition. The novel complexes, [Ru(pbt)2(phen2DTT)](PF6)2·1.5H2O 1 (where phen2DTT = 1,4-bis(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-ylsulfanyl)butane-2,3-diol and pbt = 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzothiazole) and [Ru(pbt)2(tpphz)](PF6)2·3H2O 2 (where tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]phenazine) were synthesised and characterised. Compound 1 was reacted with [VO(sal-L-tryp)(H2O)] (where sal-L-tryp = N-salicylidene-L-tryptophanate) to produce [Ru(pbt)2(phen2DTT)VO(sal-L-tryp)](PF6)2·5H2O 4; while [VO(sal-L-tryp)(H2O)] was reacted with compound 2 to produce [Ru(pbt)2(tpphz)VO(sal-L-tryp)](PF6)2·6H2O 3. All complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, HRMS, ESI MS, UV-visible absorption, ESR spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, where appropriate. In vitro cell toxicity studies (with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) via dark and light reaction conditions were carried out with sodium diaqua-4,4',4'',4''' tetrasulfophthalocyaninecobaltate(II) (Na4[Co(tspc)(H2O)2]), [VO(sal-L-tryp)(phen)]·H2O, and the chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4. Such studies involved A431, human epidermoid carcinoma cells; human amelanotic malignant melanoma cells; and HFF, non-cancerous human skin fibroblast cells. Both chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4 were found to be more toxic to melanoma cells than to non-cancerous fibroblast cells, and preferentially led to apoptosis of the melanoma cells over non-cancerous skin cells. The anti-cancer property of the chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4 was further enhanced when treated cells were exposed to light, while no such effect was observed on non-cancerous skin fibroblast cells. ESR and (51)V NMR spectroscopic studies were also used to assess the stability of the chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4 in aqueous media at pH 7.19. This research illustrates the potential for using mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes to fight skin cancer.
Holding, DR, Hunter BG, Chung T, Gibbon BC, Ford CF, Bharti AK, Messing J, Hamaker BR, Larkins BA.  2008.  Genetic analysis of opaque2 modifier loci in quality protein maize. Theor Appl Genet. 117:157-70. AbstractWebsite
Quality protein maize (QPM) was created by selecting genetic modifiers that convert the starchy endosperm of an opaque2 (o2) mutant to a hard, vitreous phenotype. Genetic analysis has shown that there are multiple, unlinked o2 modifiers (Opm), but their identity and mode of action are unknown. Using two independently developed QPM lines, we mapped several major Opm QTLs to chromosomes 1, 7 and 9. A microarray hybridization performed with RNA obtained from true breeding o2 progeny with vitreous and opaque kernel phenotypes identified a small group of differentially expressed genes, some of which map at or near the Opm QTLs. Several of the genes are associated with ethylene and ABA signaling and suggest a potential linkage of o2 endosperm modification with programmed cell death.
Horner, V.L., Czank, Z., Jang, J.K., Singh, N., Williams, B.C., Puro, J., Kubli, E., Hanes, S.D., McKim, K.S., Wolfner, M.F. et al..  2006.  The Drosophila calcipressin sarah is Required for several aspects of egg activation. Curr Biol. 16:144-6.Website
Hou, Y, Guo X, Cyprys P, Zhang Y, Bleckmann A, Cai L, Huang Q, Luo Y, Gu H, Dresselhaus T et al..  2016.  Maternal ENODLs Are Required for Pollen Tube Reception in Arabidopsis.. Curr. Biol.. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.06.053