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Das, P, Maduzia LL, Wang H, Finelli AL, Cho SH, Smith MM, Padgett RW.  1998.  The Drosophila gene Medea demonstrates the requirement for different classes of Smads in dpp signaling. Development (Cambridge, England). 125:1519-28. AbstractWebsite
Signals from transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) ligands are transmitted within the cell by members of the Smad family, which can be grouped into three classes based on sequence similarities. Our previous identification of both class I and II Smads functioning in a single pathway in C. elegans, raised the issue of whether the requirement for Smads derived from different classes is a general feature of TGF-beta signaling. We report here the identification of a new Drosophila class II Smad, Medea, a close homolog of the human tumor-suppressor gene DPC4. Embryos from germline clones of both Medea and Mad (a class I Smad) are ventralized, as are embryos null for the TGF-beta-like ligand decapentaplegic (dpp). Loss of Medea also blocks dpp signaling during later development, suggesting that Medea, like Mad, is universally required for dpp signaling. Furthermore, we show that the necessity for these two closely related, non-redundant Smads, is due to their different signaling properties - upon activation of the Dpp pathway, Mad is required to actively translocate Medea into the nucleus. These results provide a paradigm for, and distinguish between, the requirement for class I and II Smads in Dpp/BMP signaling.
Das, P, Maduzia LL, Padgett RW.  1999.  Genetic approaches to TGFβ signaling pathways. Cytokine & growth factor reviews. 10:179-86.Website
Das, OP, Messing J.  1994.  Variegated phenotype and developmental methylation changes of a maize allele originating from epimutation. Genetics. 136:1121-41. AbstractWebsite
Two instances of genetic transmission of spontaneous epimutation of the maize P-rr gene were identified. Transmission gave rise to two similar, moderately stable alleles, designated P-pr-1 and P-pr-2, that exhibited Mendelian behavior. Both isolates of P-pr conditioned a variable and variegated phenotype, unlike the uniform pigmentation conditioned by P-rr. Extensive genomic analysis failed to reveal insertions, deletions or restriction site polymorphisms between the new allele and its progenitor. However, methylation of the P gene was increased in P-pr relative to P-rr, and was greatly reduced (though not lost) in a revertant to uniform pigmentation. Variability in pigmentation conditioned by P-pr correlated with variability in transcript levels of the P gene, and both correlated inversely with variability in its methylation. Part of the variability in methylation could be accounted for by a developmental decrease in methylation in all tissues of plants carrying P-pr. We hypothesize that the variegated phenotype results from a general epigenetic pathway which causes a progressive decrease in methylation and increase in expression potential of the P gene as a function of cell divisions in each meristem of the plant. This renders all tissues chimeric for a functional gene; chimerism is visualized as variegation only in pericarp due to the tissue specificity of P gene expression. Therefore, this allele that originates from epimutation may exemplify an epigenetic mechanism for variegation in maize.
Das, A, Shah SJ, Fan B, Paik D, DiSanto DJ, Hinman A M, Cesario JM, Battaglia RA, Demos N, McKim KS.  2016.  Spindle Assembly and Chromosome Segregation Requires Central Spindle Proteins in Drosophila Oocytes.. Genetics. 202(1):61-75. Abstract
Oocytes segregate chromosomes in the absence of centrosomes. In this situation, the chromosomes direct spindle assembly. It is still unclear in this system which factors are required for homologous chromosome bi-orientation and spindle assembly. The Drosophila kinesin-6 protein Subito, although nonessential for mitotic spindle assembly, is required to organize a bipolar meiotic spindle and chromosome bi-orientation in oocytes. Along with the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), Subito is an important part of the metaphase I central spindle. In this study we have conducted genetic screens to identify genes that interact with subito or the CPC component Incenp. In addition, the meiotic mutant phenotype for some of the genes identified in these screens were characterized. We show, in part through the use of a heat-shock-inducible system, that the Centralspindlin component RacGAP50C and downstream regulators of cytokinesis Rho1, Sticky, and RhoGEF2 are required for homologous chromosome bi-orientation in metaphase I oocytes. This suggests a novel function for proteins normally involved in mitotic cell division in the regulation of microtubule-chromosome interactions. We also show that the kinetochore protein, Polo kinase, is required for maintaining chromosome alignment and spindle organization in metaphase I oocytes. In combination our results support a model where the meiotic central spindle and associated proteins are essential for acentrosomal chromosome segregation.
Dasgupta, J, Tyryshkin AM, Kozlov YN, Klimov VV, Dismukes CG.  2006.  Carbonate Complexation of Mn2+ in the Aqueous Phase:  Redox Behavior and Ligand Binding Modes by Electrochemistry and EPR Spectroscopy. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 110:5099-5111. AbstractWebsite
Dasgupta, J, Ananyev GM, Dismukes GC.  2008.  Photoassembly of the water-oxidizing complex in photosystem II. Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 252:347-360. AbstractWebsite
The light-driven steps in the biogenesis and repair of the inorganic core comprising the O-2-evolving center of oxygenic photosynthesis (photosystem II water-oxidation complex, PSII-WOC) are reviewed. These steps, known collectively as photoactivation, involve the photoassembly of the free inorganic cofactors to the cofactor-depleted PSII-(apo-WOC) driven by light and produce the active O-2-evolving core comprised of Mn4CaOxCly. We focus on the functional role of the inorganic components as seen through the competition with non-native cofactors ("inorganic mutants") on water oxidation activity, the rate of the photoassembly reaction, and on structural insights gained from EPR spectroscopy of trapped intermediates formed in the initial steps of the assembly reaction. A chemical mechanism for the initial steps in photoactivation is given that is based on these data. Photoactivation experiments offer the powerful insights gained from replacement of the native cofactors, which together with the recent X-ray structural data for the resting holoenzyme provide a deeper understanding of the chemistry of water oxidation. We also review some new directions in research that photoactivation studies have inspired that look at the evolutionary history of this remarkable catalyst. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Datsenko, KA, Pougach K, Tikhonov A, Wanner BL, Severinov K, Semenova E.  2012.  Prior encounters dramatically stimulate adaptive bacterial CRISPR immune response to viruses. Nature Commun. 3:945.
Degen, D, Feng Y, Zhang Y, Ebright KY, Ebright YW, Gigliotti M, Vahedian-Movahed H, Mandal S, Talaue M, Connell N et al..  2014.  Transcription inhibition by the depsipeptide antibiotic salinamide A.. eLife. 3:e02451. Abstract
We report that bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the functional cellular target of the depsipeptide antibiotic salinamide A (Sal), and we report that Sal inhibits RNAP through a novel binding site and mechanism. We show that Sal inhibits RNA synthesis in cells and that mutations that confer Sal-resistance map to RNAP genes. We show that Sal interacts with the RNAP active-center 'bridge-helix cap,' comprising the 'bridge-helix N-terminal hinge,' 'F-loop,' and 'link region.' We show that Sal inhibits nucleotide addition in transcription initiation and elongation. We present a crystal structure that defines interactions between Sal and RNAP and effects of Sal on RNAP conformation. We propose that Sal functions by binding to the RNAP bridge-helix cap and preventing conformational changes of the bridge-helix N-terminal hinge necessary for nucleotide addition. The results provide a target for antibacterial drug discovery and a reagent to probe conformation and function of the bridge-helix N-terminal hinge.
Deibert, BJ, Zhang J, Smith PF, Chapman KW, Rangan S, Banerjee D, Tan K, Wang H, Pasguale N, Chen F et al..  2015.  Surface and Structural Investigation of a MnOx Birnessite-Type Water Oxidation Catalyst Formed under Photocatalytic Conditions. Chemistry. 21(40):14218-14228. Abstract
Catalytically active MnOx species have been reported to form in situ from various Mn-complexes during electrocatalytic and solution-based water oxidation when employing cerium(IV) ammonium ammonium nitrate (CAN) oxidant as a sacrificial reagent. The full structural characterization of these oxides may be complicated by the presence of support material and lack of a pure bulk phase. For the first time, we show that highly active MnOx catalysts form without supports in situ under photocatalytic conditions. Our most active (4)MnOx catalyst (∼0.84 mmol O2  mol Mn(-1) s(-1)) forms from a Mn4O4 bearing a metal-organic framework. (4)MnOx is characterized by pair distribution function analysis (PDF), Raman spectroscopy, and HR-TEM as a disordered, layered Mn-oxide with high surface area (216 m(2) g(-1)) and small regions of crystallinity and layer flexibility. In contrast, the (S)MnOx formed from Mn(2+) salt gives an amorphous species of lower surface area (80 m(2) g(-1)) and lower activity (∼0.15 mmol O2  mol Mn(-1) s(-1)). We compare these catalysts to crystalline hexagonal birnessite, which activates under the same conditions. Full deconvolution of the XPS Mn2p3/2 core levels detects enriched Mn(3+) and Mn(2+) content on the surfaces, which indicates possible disproportionation/comproportionation surface equilibria.
Deighan, P, Pukhrambam C, Nickels BE, Hochschild A.  2011.  Initial transcribed region sequences influence the composition and functional properties of the bacterial elongation complex. Genes Dev. 25:77-88. AbstractWebsite
The bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme consists of a catalytic core enzyme (alpha(2)betabeta'omega) in complex with a sigma factor that is essential for promoter recognition and transcription initiation. During early elongation, the stability of interactions between sigma and the remainder of the transcription complex decreases. Nevertheless, there is no mechanistic requirement for release of sigma upon the transition to elongation. Furthermore, sigma can remain associated with RNAP during transcription elongation and influence regulatory events that occur during transcription elongation. Here we demonstrate that promoter-like DNA sequence elements within the initial transcribed region that are known to induce early elongation pausing through sequence-specific interactions with sigma also function to increase the sigma content of downstream elongation complexes. Our findings establish sigma-dependent pausing as a mechanism by which initial transcribed region sequences can influence the composition and functional properties of the transcription elongation complex over distances of at least 700 base pairs.
Deighan, P, Diez CM, Leibman M, Hochschild A, Nickels BE.  2008.  The bacteriophage lambda Q antiterminator protein contacts the beta-flap domain of RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105:15305-10. AbstractWebsite
The multisubunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) in bacteria consists of a catalytically active core enzyme (alpha(2)beta beta'omega) complexed with a sigma factor that is required for promoter-specific transcription initiation. During early elongation the stability of interactions between sigma and core decreases, in part because of the nascent RNA-mediated destabilization of an interaction between region 4 of sigma and the flap domain of the beta-subunit (beta-flap). The nascent RNA-mediated destabilization of the sigma region 4/beta-flap interaction is required for the bacteriophage lambda Q antiterminator protein (lambdaQ) to engage the RNAP holoenzyme. Here, we provide an explanation for this requirement by showing that lambdaQ establishes direct contact with the beta-flap during the engagement process, thus competing with sigma(70) region 4 for access to the beta-flap. We also show that lambdaQ's affinity for the beta-flap is calibrated to ensure that lambdaQ activity is restricted to the lambda late promoter P(R'). Specifically, we find that strengthening the lambdaQ/beta-flap interaction allows lambdaQ to bypass the requirement for specific cis-acting sequence elements, a lambdaQ-DNA binding site and a RNAP pause-inducing element, that normally ensure lambdaQ is recruited exclusively to transcription complexes associated with P(R'). Our findings demonstrate that the beta-flap can serve as a direct target for regulators of elongation.
Delatte, B, Wang F, Ngoc L V, Collignon E, Bonvin E, Deplus R, Calonne E, Hassabi B, Putmans P, Awe S et al..  2016.  Transcriptome-wide distribution and function of RNA hydroxymethylcytosine. Science. 351(6270):282-285. AbstractWebsite
Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the transcriptome-wide hydroxymethylation landscape, revealing hydroxymethylcytosine in the transcripts of many genes, notably in coding sequences, and identify consensus sites for hydroxymethylation. We found that RNA hydroxymethylation can favor mRNA translation. Tet and hydroxymethylated RNA are found to be most abundant in the Drosophila brain, and Tet-deficient fruitflies suffer impaired brain development, accompanied by decreased RNA hydroxymethylation. This study highlights the distribution, localization, and function of cytosine hydroxymethylation and identifies central roles for this modification in Drosophila.
Derynck, R, Gelbart WM, Harland RM, Heldin CH, Kern SE, Massagué J, Melton DA, Mlodzik M, Padgett RW, Roberts AB et al..  1996.  Nomenclature: vertebrate mediators of TGFβ family signals. Cell. 87:173.Website
Devi, PG, Campbell EA, Darst SA, Nickels BE.  2010.  Utilization of variably spaced promoter-like elements by the bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme during early elongation. Mol Microbiol. 75:607-22. AbstractWebsite
The bacterial RNA polymeras holoenzyme consists of a catalytic core enzyme in complex with a sigma factor that is required for promoter-specific transcription initiation. During initiation, members of the sigma(70) family of sigma factors contact two conserved promoter elements, the -10 and -35 elements, which are separated by approximately 17 base pairs (bp). sigma(70) family members contain four flexibly linked domains. Two of these domains, sigma(2) and sigma(4), contain determinants for interactions with the promoter -10 and -35 elements respectively. sigma(2) and sigma(4) also contain core-binding determinants. When bound to core the inter-domain distance between sigma(2) and sigma(4) matches the distance between promoter elements separated by approximately 17 bp. Prior work indicates that during early elongation the nascent RNA-assisted displacement of sigma(4) from core can enable the holoenzyme to adopt a configuration in which sigma(2) and sigma(4) are bound to 'promoter-like' DNA elements separated by a single base pair. Here we demonstrate that holoenzyme can also adopt configurations in which sigma(2) and sigma(4) are bound to 'promoter-like' DNA elements separated by 0, 2 or 3 bp. Thus, our findings suggest that displacement of sigma(4) from core enables the RNA polymerase holoenzyme to adopt a broad range of 'elongation-specific' configurations.
Dismukes, GC, Klimov VV, Baranov SV, Kozlov YN, Dasgupta J, Tyryshkin A.  2001.  The origin of atmospheric oxygen on Earth: The innovation of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98:2170-2175. AbstractWebsite
The evolution of O-2-producing cyanobacteria that use water as terminal reductant transformed Earth's atmosphere to one suitable for the evolution of aerobic metabolism and complex life. The innovation of water oxidation freed photosynthesis to invade new environments and visibly changed the face of the Earth. We offer a new hypothesis for how this process evolved, which identifies two critical roles for carbon dioxide in the Archean period. First, we present a thermodynamic analysis showing that bicarbonate (formed by dissolution of CO2) is a more efficient alternative substrate than water for O-2 production by oxygenic phototrophs. This analysis clarifies the origin of the long debated "bicarbonate effect" on photosynthetic O-2 production. We propose that bicarbonate was the thermodynamically preferred reductant before water in the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Second, we have examined the speciation of manganese(II) and bicarbonate in water, and find that they form Mn-bicarbonate clusters as the major species under conditions that model the chemistry of the Archean sea. These clusters have been found to be highly efficient precursors for the assembly of the tetramanganese-oxide core of the water-oxidizing enzyme during biogenesis. We show that these clusters can be oxidized at electrochemical potentials that are accessible to anoxygenic phototrophs and thus the most likely building blocks for assembly of the first O-2 evolving photoreaction center, most likely originating from green nonsulfur bacteria before the evolution of cyanobacteria.
Dismukes, GC, Blankenship RE.  2005.  The origin and evolution of photosynthetic oxygen production. Photosystem Ii. 22:683-695.Website
Dismukes, CG, Brimblecombe R, Felton GAN, Pryadun RS, Sheats JE, Spiccia L, Swiegers GF.  2009.  Development of Bioinspired Mn4O4−Cubane Water Oxidation Catalysts: Lessons from Photosynthesis. Accounts of Chemical Research. 42:1935-1943. AbstractWebsite
Dismukes, GC.  2001.  Splitting Water. Science. 292:447-448.Website
Dismukes, GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Posewitz MC.  2008.  Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 19:235-40. AbstractWebsite
To mitigate some of the potentially deleterious environmental and agricultural consequences associated with current land-based-biofuel feedstocks, we propose the use of biofuels derived from aquatic microbial oxygenic photoautotrophs (AMOPs), more commonly known as cyanobacteria, algae, and diatoms. Herein we review their demonstrated productivity in mass culturing and aspects of their physiology that are particularly attractive for integration into renewable biofuel applications. Compared with terrestrial crops, AMOPs are inherently more efficient solar collectors, use less or no land, can be converted to liquid fuels using simpler technologies than cellulose, and offer secondary uses that fossil fuels do not provide. AMOPs pose a new set of technological challenges if they are to contribute as biofuel feedstocks.
Dismukes, GC, Ananyev GM, Watt R.  2005.  Photo-assembly of the catalytic manganese cluster. Photosystem Ii. 22:609-626.Website
Djordjevic, M, Djordjevic M, Severinov K.  2012.  CRISPR transcript processing: an unusual mechanism for strong amplification of small RNAs. Biol. Direct. 7:24.
Dong, Q, Ebright RH.  1992.  DNA binding specificity and sequence of Xanthomonas campestris catabolite gene activator protein-like protein.. Journal of bacteriology. 174(16):5457-61. Abstract
The Xanthomonas campestris catabolite gene activator protein-like protein (CLP) can substitute for the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) in transcription activation at the lac promoter (V. de Crecy-Lagard, P. Glaser, P. Lejeune, O. Sismeiro, C. Barber, M. Daniels, and A. Danchin, J. Bacteriol. 172:5877-5883, 1990). We show that CLP has the same DNA binding specificity as CAP at positions 5, 6, and 7 of the DNA half site. In addition, we show that the amino acids at positions 1 and 2 of the recognition helix of CLP are identical to the amino acids at positions 1 and 2 of the recognition helix of CAP:i.e., Arg at position 1 and Glu at position 2.
Dong, J, Feng Y, Kumar D, Zhang W, Zhu T, Luo M-C, Messing J.  2016.  Analysis of tandem gene copies in maize chromosomal regions reconstructed from long sequence reads.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113(29):7949-56. Abstract
Haplotype variation not only involves SNPs but also insertions and deletions, in particular gene copy number variations. However, comparisons of individual genomes have been difficult because traditional sequencing methods give too short reads to unambiguously reconstruct chromosomal regions containing repetitive DNA sequences. An example of such a case is the protein gene family in maize that acts as a sink for reduced nitrogen in the seed. Previously, 41-48 gene copies of the alpha zein gene family that spread over six loci spanning between 30- and 500-kb chromosomal regions have been described in two Iowa Stiff Stalk (SS) inbreds. Analyses of those regions were possible because of overlapping BAC clones, generated by an expensive and labor-intensive approach. Here we used single-molecule real-time (Pacific Biosciences) shotgun sequencing to assemble the six chromosomal regions from the Non-Stiff Stalk maize inbred W22 from a single DNA sequence dataset. To validate the reconstructed regions, we developed an optical map (BioNano genome map; BioNano Genomics) of W22 and found agreement between the two datasets. Using the sequences of full-length cDNAs from W22, we found that the error rate of PacBio sequencing seemed to be less than 0.1% after autocorrection and assembly. Expressed genes, some with premature stop codons, are interspersed with nonexpressed genes, giving rise to genotype-specific expression differences. Alignment of these regions with those from the previous analyzed regions of SS lines exhibits in part dramatic differences between these two heterotic groups.