TTT and PIKK Complex Genes Reverted to Single Copy Following Polyploidization and Retain Function Despite Massive Retrotransposition in Maize

Garcia, N, Messing J.  2017.  

Journal:

Frontiers in plant science

Volume Number:

8

Pages:

1723

Abstract:

The TEL2, TTI1, and TTI2 proteins are co-chaperones for heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to regulate the protein folding and maturation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs). Referred to as the TTT complex, the genes that encode them are highly conserved from man to maize. TTT complex and PIKK genes exist mostly as single copy genes in organisms where they have been characterized. Members of this interacting protein network in maize were identified and synteny analyses were performed to study their evolution. Similar to other species, there is only one copy of each of these genes in maize which was due to a loss of the duplicated copy created by ancient allotetraploidy. Moreover, the retained copies of the TTT complex and the PIKK genes tolerated extensive retrotransposon insertion in their introns that resulted in increased gene lengths and gene body methylation, without apparent effect in normal gene expression and function. The results raise an interesting question on whether the reversion to single copy was due to selection against deleterious unbalanced gene duplications between members of the complex as predicted by the gene balance hypothesis, or due to neutral loss of extra copies. Uneven alteration of dosage either by adding extra copies or modulating gene expression of complex members is being proposed as a means to investigate whether the data supports the gene balance hypothesis or not.

Citation:
Garcia, N, Messing J.  2017.  TTT and PIKK Complex Genes Reverted to Single Copy Following Polyploidization and Retain Function Despite Massive Retrotransposition in Maize. Frontiers in plant science. 8:1723.