Planta, J, Xiang X, Leustek T, Messing J.  2017.  Engineering sulfur storage in maize seed proteins without apparent yield loss.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114(43):11386-11391. Abstract
Sulfur assimilation may limit the pool of methionine and cysteine available for incorporation into zeins, the major seed storage proteins in maize. This hypothesis was tested by producing transgenic maize with deregulated sulfate reduction capacity achieved through leaf-specific expression of the Escherichia coli enzyme 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase (EcPAPR) that resulted in higher methionine accumulation in seeds. The transgenic kernels have higher expression of the methionine-rich 10-kDa δ-zein and total protein sulfur without reduction of other zeins. This overall increase in the expression of the S-rich zeins describes a facet of regulation of these proteins under enhanced sulfur assimilation. Transgenic line PE5 accumulates 57.6% more kernel methionine than the high-methionine inbred line B101. In feeding trials with chicks, PE5 maize promotes significant weight gain compared with nontransgenic kernels. Therefore, increased source strength can improve the nutritional value of maize without apparent yield loss and may significantly reduce the cost of feed supplementation.
Xiang, X, Wu Y, Planta J, Messing J, Leustek T.  2017.  Overexpression of serine acetyltransferase in maize leaves increases seed-specific methionine-rich zeins. Plant biotechnology journal. Abstract
Maize kernels do not contain enough of the essential sulphur-amino acid methionine (Met) to serve as a complete diet for animals, even though maize has the genetic capacity to store Met in kernels. Prior studies indicated that the availability of the sulphur (S)-amino acids may limit their incorporation into seed storage proteins. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) is a key control point for S-assimilation leading to Cys and Met biosynthesis, and SAT overexpression is known to enhance S-assimilation without negative impact on plant growth. Therefore, we overexpressed Arabidopsis thaliana AtSAT1 in maize under control of the leaf bundle sheath cell-specific rbcS1 promoter to determine the impact on seed storage protein expression. The transgenic events exhibited up to 12-fold higher SAT activity without negative impact on growth. S-assimilation was increased in the leaves of SAT overexpressing plants, followed by higher levels of storage protein mRNA and storage proteins, particularly the 10-kDa δ-zein, during endosperm development. This zein is known to impact the level of Met stored in kernels. The elite event with the highest expression of AtSAT1 showed 1.40-fold increase in kernel Met. When fed to chickens, transgenic AtSAT1 kernels significantly increased growth rate compared with the parent maize line. The result demonstrates the efficacy of increasing maize nutritional value by SAT overexpression without apparent yield loss. Maternal overexpression of SAT in vegetative tissues was necessary for high-Met zein accumulation. Moreover, SAT overcomes the shortage of S-amino acids that limits the expression and accumulation of high-Met zeins during kernel development.
Garcia, N, Li Y, Dooner HK, Messing J.  2017.  Maize defective kernel mutant generated by insertion of a Ds element in a gene encoding a highly conserved TTI2 cochaperone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114(20):5165-5170. Abstract
We have used the newly engineered transposable element Dsg to tag a gene that gives rise to a defective kernel (dek) phenotype. Dsg requires the autonomous element Ac for transposition. Upon excision, it leaves a short DNA footprint that can create in-frame and frameshift insertions in coding sequences. Therefore, we could create alleles of the tagged gene that confirmed causation of the dek phenotype by the Dsg insertion. The mutation, designated dek38-Dsg, is embryonic lethal, has a defective basal endosperm transfer (BETL) layer, and results in a smaller seed with highly underdeveloped endosperm. The maize dek38 gene encodes a TTI2 (Tel2-interacting protein 2) molecular cochaperone. In yeast and mammals, TTI2 associates with two other cochaperones, TEL2 (Telomere maintenance 2) and TTI1 (Tel2-interacting protein 1), to form the triple T complex that regulates DNA damage response. Therefore, we cloned the maize Tel2 and Tti1 homologs and showed that TEL2 can interact with both TTI1 and TTI2 in yeast two-hybrid assays. The three proteins regulate the cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) and localize to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, consistent with known subcellular locations of PIKKs. dek38-Dsg displays reduced pollen transmission, indicating TTI2's importance in male reproductive cell development.
Planta, J, Messing J.  2017.  Quality Protein Maize Based on Reducing Sulfur in Leaf Cells. Genetics. 207(4):1687-1697. Abstract
Low levels of the essential amino acids lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met) in a maize-based diet are a major cost to feed and food. Lys deficiency is due to the abundance of Lys-poor proteins in maize kernels. Although a maize mutant, opaque-2 (o2), has sufficient levels of Lys, its soft kernel renders it unfit for storage and transportation. Breeders overcame this problem by selecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) restoring kernel hardness in the presence of o2, a variety called Quality Protein Maize (QPM). Although at least one QTL acts by enhancing the expression of the γ-zein proteins, we could surprisingly achieve rebalancing of the Lys content and a vitreous kernel phenotype by targeting suppression of γ-zeins without the o2 mutant. Reduced levels of γ-zeins were achieved with RNA interference (RNAi). Another transgenic event, PE5 expresses the Escherichia coli enzyme 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase involved in sulfate assimilation, specifically in leaves. The stacked transgenic events produce a vitreous endosperm, which has higher Lys level than the classical opaque W64Ao2 variant. Moreover, due to the increased sulfate reduction in the leaf, Met level is elevated in the seed. Such a combination of transgenes produces hybrid seeds superior to classical QPMs that would neither require a costly feed mix nor synthetic Met supplementation, potentially creating a novel and cost-effective means for improving maize nutritional quality.
Garcia, N, Messing J.  2017.  TTT and PIKK Complex Genes Reverted to Single Copy Following Polyploidization and Retain Function Despite Massive Retrotransposition in Maize. Frontiers in plant science. 8:1723. Abstract
The TEL2, TTI1, and TTI2 proteins are co-chaperones for heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to regulate the protein folding and maturation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs). Referred to as the TTT complex, the genes that encode them are highly conserved from man to maize. TTT complex and PIKK genes exist mostly as single copy genes in organisms where they have been characterized. Members of this interacting protein network in maize were identified and synteny analyses were performed to study their evolution. Similar to other species, there is only one copy of each of these genes in maize which was due to a loss of the duplicated copy created by ancient allotetraploidy. Moreover, the retained copies of the TTT complex and the PIKK genes tolerated extensive retrotransposon insertion in their introns that resulted in increased gene lengths and gene body methylation, without apparent effect in normal gene expression and function. The results raise an interesting question on whether the reversion to single copy was due to selection against deleterious unbalanced gene duplications between members of the complex as predicted by the gene balance hypothesis, or due to neutral loss of extra copies. Uneven alteration of dosage either by adding extra copies or modulating gene expression of complex members is being proposed as a means to investigate whether the data supports the gene balance hypothesis or not.
Messing, J.  2017.  Does Investment in Research Always Pay Off? American Academy of Arts and Sciences Bulletin. 70(3):45-47.
Larkins, BA, Wu Y, Song R, Messing J.  2017.  Maize seed storage proteins. Maize Kernel Development. :175-189.
Wu, Y, Messing J.  2017.  Understanding and improving protein traits in maize seeds. Achieving Sustainable Maize Cultivation. :115-128.
Wang, W, Wu Y, Messing J.  2016.  Genome-wide analysis of pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins of an aquatic plant.. Planta. Abstract
A large proportion of genes in plant genomes are organized as gene families. Whereas most gene families in the aquative plant Spirodela are reduced in their copy number, the PPR gene family is expanded, which match the RNA editing sites in organelles, providing us with new insights in the evolution of flowering plants. Pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins (PPRs) are nuclear-encoded proteins that are targeted to mitochondria and plastids to stabilize and edit mRNA transcribed from organellar genomes. They have been described for many terrestrial plant species from a diverse spectrum of sequenced genomes. To further increase our understanding of the evolution of this gene family across angiosperms, we analyzed the PPR genes in the aquatic species Spirodela polyrhiza in the order of the Alismatales (monocotyledonous plants). Because we had generated next generation sequencing data from transcripts and had sequenced the genome of Spirodela polyrhiza, we were able to identify its PPR genes and determine the level of their expression. In total, we could identify 556 PPR proteins, of which 238 members belong to the P (P motif) subfamily that is mainly involved in RNA stabilization and 318 ones to the PLS (P, Longer P, shorter P motif) subfamily responsible for RNA editing. Compared to other angiosperms, this is a large increase in the copy number of the PLS-PPRs subfamily and the expansion correlates with the increase of the number of RNA editing sites of organellar transcripts. Expression of PPR was generally stable even during growing and dormant stages, indicating that their function was critical throughout development. However, PPRs, especially those of the PLS subfamily, were expressed at relatively low levels, suggesting a delicate fine-tuning of its trans-acting function in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Thus, understanding PPR evolution and expression will help decipher the PPR code for their binding sites, which could genetically engineer RNA-binding proteins toward desired sequence.
Messing, J.  2016.  Phage M13 for the treatment of Alzheimer and Parkinson disease.. Gene. 583(2):85-9. Abstract
The studies of microbes have been instrumental in combatting infectious diseases, but they have also led to great insights into basic biological mechanism like DNA replication, transcription, and translation of mRNA. In particular, the studies of bacterial viruses, also called bacteriophage, have been quite useful to study specific cellular processes because of the ease to isolate their DNA, mRNA, and proteins. Here, I review the recent discovery of how properties of the filamentous phage M13 emerge as a novel approach to combat neurodegenerative diseases.
Dong, J, Feng Y, Kumar D, Zhang W, Zhu T, Luo M-C, Messing J.  2016.  Analysis of tandem gene copies in maize chromosomal regions reconstructed from long sequence reads.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113(29):7949-56. Abstract
Haplotype variation not only involves SNPs but also insertions and deletions, in particular gene copy number variations. However, comparisons of individual genomes have been difficult because traditional sequencing methods give too short reads to unambiguously reconstruct chromosomal regions containing repetitive DNA sequences. An example of such a case is the protein gene family in maize that acts as a sink for reduced nitrogen in the seed. Previously, 41-48 gene copies of the alpha zein gene family that spread over six loci spanning between 30- and 500-kb chromosomal regions have been described in two Iowa Stiff Stalk (SS) inbreds. Analyses of those regions were possible because of overlapping BAC clones, generated by an expensive and labor-intensive approach. Here we used single-molecule real-time (Pacific Biosciences) shotgun sequencing to assemble the six chromosomal regions from the Non-Stiff Stalk maize inbred W22 from a single DNA sequence dataset. To validate the reconstructed regions, we developed an optical map (BioNano genome map; BioNano Genomics) of W22 and found agreement between the two datasets. Using the sequences of full-length cDNAs from W22, we found that the error rate of PacBio sequencing seemed to be less than 0.1% after autocorrection and assembly. Expressed genes, some with premature stop codons, are interspersed with nonexpressed genes, giving rise to genotype-specific expression differences. Alignment of these regions with those from the previous analyzed regions of SS lines exhibits in part dramatic differences between these two heterotic groups.
Cao, H X, Vu G T H, Wang W, Appenroth KJ, Messing J, Schubert I.  2016.  The map-based genome sequence of Spirodela polyrhiza aligned with its chromosomes, a reference for karyotype evolution.. The New phytologist. 209(1):354-63. Abstract
Duckweeds are aquatic monocotyledonous plants of potential economic interest with fast vegetative propagation, comprising 37 species with variable genome sizes (0.158-1.88 Gbp). The genomic sequence of Spirodela polyrhiza, the smallest and the most ancient duckweed genome, needs to be aligned to its chromosomes as a reference and prerequisite to study the genome and karyotype evolution of other duckweed species. We selected physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing Spirodela DNA inserts with little or no repetitive elements as probes for multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mcFISH), using an optimized BAC pooling strategy, to validate its physical map and correlate it with its chromosome complement. By consecutive mcFISH analyses, we assigned the originally assembled 32 pseudomolecules (supercontigs) of the genomic sequences to the 20 chromosomes of S. polyrhiza. A Spirodela cytogenetic map containing 96 BAC markers with an average distance of 0.89 Mbp was constructed. Using a cocktail of 41 BACs in three colors, all chromosome pairs could be individualized simultaneously. Seven ancestral blocks emerged from duplicated chromosome segments of 19 Spirodela chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated genome of S. polyrhiza and the established prerequisites for comparative chromosome painting enable future studies on the chromosome homoeology and karyotype evolution of duckweed species.
Xu, J-H, Wang R, Li X, Miclaus M, Messing J.  2016.  Locus- and Site-Specific DNA Methylation of 19 kDa Zein Genes in Maize.. PloS one. 11(1):e0146416. Abstract
An interesting question in maize development is why only a single zein gene is highly expressed in each of the 19-kDa zein gene clusters (A and B types), z1A2-1 and z1B4, in the immature endosperm. For instance, epigenetic marks could provide a structural difference. Therefore, we investigated the DNA methylation of the arrays of gene copies in both promoter and gene body regions of leaf (non-expressing tissue as a control), normal endosperm, and cultured endosperm. Although we could show that expressed genes have much lower methylation levels in promoter regions than silent ones in both leaf and normal endosperm, there was surprisingly also a difference in the pattern of the z1A and z1B gene clusters. The expression of z1B gene is suppressed by increased DNA methylation and activated with reduced DNA methylation, whereas z1A gene expression is not. DNA methylation in gene coding regions is higher in leaf than in endosperm, whereas no significant difference is observed in gene bodies between expressed and non-expressed gene copies. A median CHG methylation (25-30%) appears to be optimal for gene expression. Moreover, tissue-cultured endosperm can reset the DNA methylation pattern and tissue-specific gene expression. These results reveal that DNA methylation changes of the 19-kDa zein genes is subject to plant development and tissue culture treatment, but varies in different chromosomal locations, indicating that DNA methylation changes do not apply to gene expression in a uniform fashion. Because tissue culture is used to produce transgenic plants, these studies provide new insights into variation of gene expression of integrated sequences.
Zhang, W, Xu J H, Bennetzen JL, Messing J.  2016.  Teff, an Orphan Cereal in the Chloridoideae, Provides Insights into the Evolution of Storage Proteins in Grasses.. Genome biology and evolution. 8(6):1712-21. Abstract
Seed storage proteins (SSP) in cereals provide essential nutrition for humans and animals. Genes encoding these proteins have undergone rapid evolution in different grass species. To better understand the degree of divergence, we analyzed this gene family in the subfamily Chloridoideae, where the genome of teff (Eragrostis tef) has been sequenced. We find gene duplications, deletions, and rapid mutations in protein-coding sequences. The main SSPs in teff, like other grasses, are prolamins, here called eragrostins. Teff has γ- and δ-prolamins, but has no β-prolamins. One δ-type prolamin (δ1) in teff has higher methionine (33%) levels than in maize (23-25%). The other δ-type prolamin (δ2) has reduced methionine residues (<10%) and is phylogenetically closer to α prolamins. Prolamin δ2 in teff represents an intermediate between δ and α types that appears to have been lost in maize and other Panicoideae, and was replaced by the expansion of α-prolamins. Teff also has considerably larger numbers of α-prolamin genes, which we further divide into five sub-groups, where α2 and α5 represent the most abundant α-prolamins both in number and in expression. In addition, indolines that determine kernel softness are present in teff and the panicoid cereal called foxtail millet (Setaria italica) but not in sorghum or maize, indicating that these genes were only recently lost in some members of the Panicoideae Moreover, this study provides not only information on the evolution of SSPs in the grass family but also the importance of α-globulins in protein aggregation and germplasm divergence.
Zhang, W, Messing J.  2016.  PacBio for Haplotyping in Gene Families. Haplotyping. Methods in Molecular Biology 1551. :61-71.
Cao, HX, Vu GT, Wang W, Messing J, Schubert I.  2015.  Chromatin organisation in duckweed interphase nuclei in relation to the nuclear DNA content. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 17 Suppl 1:120-4. AbstractWebsite
The accessibility of DNA during fundamental processes, such as transcription, replication and DNA repair, is tightly modulated through a dynamic chromatin structure. Differences in large-scale chromatin structure at the microscopic level can be observed as euchromatic and heterochromatic domains in interphase nuclei. Here, key epigenetic marks, including histone H3 methylation and 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) as a DNA modification, were studied cytologically to describe the chromatin organisation of representative species of the five duckweed genera in the context of their nuclear DNA content, which ranged from 158 to 1881 Mbp. All studied duckweeds, including Spirodela polyrhiza with a genome size and repeat proportion similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, showed dispersed distribution of heterochromatin signatures (5mC, H3K9me2 and H3K27me1). This immunolabelling pattern resembles that of early developmental stages of Arabidopsis nuclei, with less pronounced heterochromatin chromocenters and heterochromatic marks weakly dispersed throughout the nucleus.
Wang, W, Messing J.  2015.  Status of duckweed genomics and transcriptomics. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 17 Suppl 1:10-5. AbstractWebsite
Duckweeds belong to the smallest flowering plants that undergo fast vegetative growth in an aquatic environment. They are commonly used in wastewater treatment and animal feed. Whereas duckweeds have been studied at the biochemical level, their reduced morphology and wide environmental adaption had not been subjected to molecular analysis until recently. Here, we review the progress that has been made in using a DNA barcode system and the sequences of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes to identify duckweed species at the species or population level. We also review analysis of the nuclear genome sequence of Spirodela that provides new insights into fundamental biological questions. Indeed, reduced gene families and missing genes are consistent with its compact morphogenesis, aquatic floating and suppression of juvenile-to-adult transition. Furthermore, deep RNA sequencing of Spirodela at the onset of dormancy and Landoltia in exposure of nutrient deficiency illustrate the molecular network for environmental adaption and stress response, constituting major progress towards a post-genome sequencing phase, where further functional genomic details can be explored. Rapid advances in sequencing technologies could continue to promote a proliferation of genome sequences for additional ecotypes as well as for other duckweed species.
Xu, J-H, Liu Q, Hu W, Wang T, Xue Q, Messing J.  2015.  Dynamics of chloroplast genomes in green plants.. Genomics. 106(4):221-31. Abstract
Chloroplasts are essential organelles, in which genes have widely been used in the phylogenetic analysis of green plants. Here, we took advantage of the breadth of plastid genomes (cpDNAs) sequenced species to investigate their dynamic changes. Our study showed that gene rearrangements occurred more frequently in the cpDNAs of green algae than in land plants. Phylogenetic trees were generated using 55 conserved protein-coding genes including 33 genes for photosynthesis, 16 ribosomal protein genes and 6 other genes, which supported the monophyletic evolution of vascular plants, land plants, seed plants, and angiosperms. Moreover, we could show that seed plants were more closely related to bryophytes rather than pteridophytes. Furthermore, the substitution rate for cpDNA genes was calculated to be 3.3×10(-10), which was almost 10 times lower than genes of nuclear genomes, probably because of the plastid homologous recombination machinery.
Zhang, W, Garcia N, Feng Y, Zhao H, Messing J.  2015.  Genome-wide histone acetylation correlates with active transcription in maize.. Genomics. 106(4):214-20. Abstract
Gene expression is regulated at many different levels during the life cycle of all plant species. Recent investigations have taken advantage of next-generation sequencing to study the relevance of DNA methylation and sRNAs in controlling tissue-specific gene expression in maize at the genome-wide level. Here, we profiled H3K27ac in maize, which has one of the largest sequenced plant genomes due to the amplification of retrotransposons. Because transcribed genes represent only a small proportion of its genome, gene-specific epigenetic modifications are concentrated in a relatively small percentage of the genome. Indeed, H3K27ac marks are mostly in gene-rich, in contrast to gene-poor regions. A large proportion of those marks are located in transcribed regions of genes, including 111 out of 458 known genetic loci. Moreover, increased transcription correlates with the presence of H3K27ac modification in gene bodies. Using maize as an example, we suggest that H3K27ac marks actively transcribed genes in plants.
Garcia, N, Zhang W, Wu Y, Messing J.  2015.  Evolution of gene expression after gene amplification.. Genome biology and evolution. 7(5):1303-12. AbstractWebsite
We took a rather unique approach to investigate the conservation of gene expression of prolamin storage protein genes across two different subfamilies of the Poaceae. We took advantage of oat plants carrying single maize chromosomes in different cultivars, called oat-maize addition (OMA) lines, which permitted us to determine whether regulation of gene expression was conserved between the two species. We found that γ-zeins are expressed in OMA7.06, which carries maize chromosome 7 even in the absence of the trans-acting maize prolamin-box-binding factor (PBF), which regulates their expression. This is likely because oat PBF can substitute for the function of maize PBF as shown in our transient expression data, using a γ-zein promoter fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Despite this conservation, the younger, recently amplified prolamin genes in maize, absent in oat, are not expressed in the corresponding OMAs. However, maize can express the oldest prolamin gene, the wheat high-molecular weight glutenin Dx5 gene, even when maize Pbf is knocked down (through PbfRNAi), and/or another maize transcription factor, Opaque-2 (O2) is knocked out (in maize o2 mutant). Therefore, older genes are conserved in their regulation, whereas younger ones diverged during evolution and eventually acquired a new repertoire of suitable transcriptional activators.
Liu, Z, Li X, Wang T, Messing J, Xu J-H.  2015.  The Wukong Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) Elements in Diverse Maize Germplasm.. G3 (Bethesda, Md.). 5(8):1585-92. AbstractWebsite
TRIMs (terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature), which are characterized by their small size, have been discovered in all investigated vascular plants and even in animals. Here, we identified a highly conservative TRIM family referred to as Wukong elements in the maize genome. The Wukong family shows a distinct pattern of tandem arrangement in the maize genome suggesting a high rate of unequal crossing over. Estimation of insertion times implies a burst of retrotransposition activity of the Wukong family after the allotetraploidization of maize. Using next-generation sequencing data, we detected 87 new Wukong insertions in parents of the maize NAM population relative to the B73 reference genome and found abundant insertion polymorphism of Wukong elements in 75 re-sequenced maize lines, including teosinte, landraces, and improved lines. These results suggest that Wukong elements possessed a persistent retrotransposition activity throughout maize evolution. Moreover, the phylogenetic relationships among 76 maize inbreds and their relatives based on insertion polymorphisms of Wukong elements should provide us with reliable molecular markers for biodiversity and genetics studies.
Wang, W, Zhang W, Wu Y, Maliga P, Messing J.  2015.  RNA Editing in Chloroplasts of Spirodela polyrhiza, an Aquatic Monocotelydonous Species.. PloS one. 10(10):e0140285. Abstract
RNA editing is the post-transcriptional conversion from C to U before translation, providing a unique feature in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we used a robust and efficient method based on RNA-seq from non-ribosomal total RNA to simultaneously measure chloroplast-gene expression and RNA editing efficiency in the Greater Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, a species that provides a new reference for the phylogenetic studies of monocotyledonous plants. We identified 66 editing sites at the genome-wide level, with an average editing efficiency of 76%. We found that the expression levels of chloroplast genes were relatively constant, but 11 RNA editing sites show significant changes in editing efficiency, when fronds turn into turions. Thus, RNA editing efficiency contributes more to the yield of translatable transcripts than steady state mRNA levels. Comparison of RNA editing sites in coconut, Spirodela, maize, and rice suggests that RNA editing originated from a common ancestor.
Lang, Z, Wills DM, Lemmon ZH, Shannon LM, Bukowski R, Wu Y, Messing J, Doebley JF.  2014.  Defining the Role of prolamin-box binding factor1 Gene During Maize Domestication. J Hered. AbstractWebsite
The prolamin-box binding factor1 (pbf1) gene encodes a transcription factor that controls the expression of seed storage protein (zein) genes in maize. Prior studies show that pbf1 underwent selection during maize domestication although how it affected trait change during domestication is unknown. To assay how pbf1 affects phenotypic differences between maize and teosinte, we compared nearly isogenic lines (NILs) that differ for a maize versus teosinte allele of pbf1. Kernel weight for the teosinte NIL (162mg) is slightly but significantly greater than that for the maize NIL (156mg). RNAseq data for developing kernels show that the teosinte allele of pbf1 is expressed at about twice the level of the maize allele. However, RNA and protein assays showed no difference in zein profile between the two NILs. The lower expression for the maize pbf1 allele suggests that selection may have favored this change; however, how reduced pbf1 expression alters phenotype remains unknown. One possibility is that pbf1 regulates genes other than zeins and thereby is a domestication trait. The observed drop in seed weight associated with the maize allele of pbf1 is counterintuitive but could represent a negative pleiotropic effect of selection on some other aspect of kernel composition.
Zhang, W, Ciclitira P, Messing J.  2014.  PacBio sequencing of gene families - a case study with wheat gluten genes. Gene. 533:541-6. AbstractWebsite
Amino acids in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds mainly accumulate in storage proteins called gliadins and glutenins. Gliadins contain alpha/beta-, gamma- and omega-types whereas glutenins contain HMW- and LMW-types. Known gliadin and glutenin sequences were largely determined through cloning and sequencing by capillary electrophoresis. This time-consuming process prevents us to intensively study the variation of each orthologous gene copy among cultivars. The throughput and sequencing length of Pacific Bioscience RS (PacBio) single molecule sequencing platform make it feasible to construct contiguous and non-chimeric RNA sequences. We assembled 424 wheat storage protein transcripts from ten wheat cultivars by using just one single-molecule-real-time cell. The protein genes from wheat cultivar Chinese Spring are comparable to known sequences from NCBI. We demonstrated real-time sequencing of gene families with high-throughput and low-cost. This method can be applied to studies of gene amplification and copy number variation among species and cultivars.
Gordon, SP, Priest H, Des Marais DL, Schackwitz W, Figueroa M, Martin J, Bragg JN, Tyler L, Lee CR, Bryant D et al..  2014.  Genome diversity in Brachypodium distachyon: deep sequencing of highly diverse inbred lines. Plant J. 79:361-74. AbstractWebsite
Brachypodium distachyon is small annual grass that has been adopted as a model for the grasses. Its small genome, high-quality reference genome, large germplasm collection, and selfing nature make it an excellent subject for studies of natural variation. We sequenced six divergent lines to identify a comprehensive set of polymorphisms and analyze their distribution and concordance with gene expression. Multiple methods and controls were utilized to identify polymorphisms and validate their quality. mRNA-Seq experiments under control and simulated drought-stress conditions, identified 300 genes with a genotype-dependent treatment response. We showed that large-scale sequence variants had extremely high concordance with altered expression of hundreds of genes, including many with genotype-dependent treatment responses. We generated a deep mRNA-Seq dataset for the most divergent line and created a de novo transcriptome assembly. This led to the discovery of >2400 previously unannotated transcripts and hundreds of genes not present in the reference genome. We built a public database for visualization and investigation of sequence variants among these widely used inbred lines.