Shotgun DNA Sequencing

Heidecker, G, Messing J, Gronenborn B.  1980.  A versatile primer for DNA sequencing in the M13mp2 cloning system. Gene. 10:69-73. AbstractWebsite
A primer for DNA sequencing by the chain-termination method in the M13mp2 cloning system was constructed and amplified. The primer was isolated as an EcoRI/AluI restriction fragment. After conversion of the AluI end into an EcoRI end the fragment was cloned in pBR325 from which it can be recovered by cleavage with EcoRI. The primer hybridizes to the single-stranded DNA of the mature M13mp2 phage next to the site of insertion thereby directing DNA synthesis along the inserted DNA.
Messing, J, Gronenborn B, Müller-Hill B, Hans Hopschneider P.  1977.  Filamentous coliphage M13 as a cloning vehicle: insertion of a HindII fragment of the lac regulatory region in M13 replicative form in vitro. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 74:3642-6. AbstractWebsite
A HindII restriction fragment comprising the Escherichia coli lac regulatory region and the genetic information for the alpha peptide of beta-galactosidase (beta-D-galactosidegalactohydrolase, EC. 3.2.1.23) has been inserted into 1 of the 10 Bsu I cleavage sites of M13 by blunt end ligation. A stable hybrid phage was isolated and identified by its ability to complement the lac alpha function. Further characterization of the hybrid phage includes retransformation studies, agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and heteroduplex mapping. The insertion point has been localized at 0.083 map unit on thewild-type circular map-i.e., within the intergenic region. The results prove that part of the intergenic region is nonessential and that the phage can be used as a cloning vehicle.