Transcriptome profiling studies have recently uncovered a large number of noncoding RNA transcripts (ncRNAs) in eukaryotic organisms, and there is growing interest in their role in the cell. For example, in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, the expression of an overlapping antisense ncRNA, referred to here as RME2 (Regulator of Meiosis 2), prevents IME4 expression. In diploid cells, the a1-Œ±2 complex represses the transcription of RME2, allowing IME4 to be induced during meiosis. In this study we show that antisense transcription across the IME4 promoter region does not block transcription factors from binding and is not required for repression. Mutational analyses found that sequences within the IME4 open reading frame (ORF) are required for the repression mediated by RME2 transcription. These results support a model where transcription of RME2 blocks the elongation of the full-length IME4 transcript but not its initiation. We have found that another antisense transcript, called RME3, represses ZIP2 in a cell-type-specific manner. These results suggest that regulated antisense transcription may be a widespread mechanism for the control of gene expression and may account for the roles of some of the previously uncharacterized ncRNAs in yeast.