Identification of a contact between arginine-180 of the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) and base pair 5 of the DNA site in the CAP-DNA complex..
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87(12):4717-21. Abstract
We have used site-directed mutagenesis to replace amino acid 1 of the recognition alpha-helix of the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP), Arg-180, with glycine and with alanine. Substitution of Arg-180 of CAP eliminated specificity between G.C, A.T, C.G, and T.A at base pair 5 of the DNA half-site. The effect was position-specific: substitution of Arg-180 did not eliminate specificity between G.C, A.T, C.G, and T.A at base pair 7 of the DNA half-site. We conclude, in agreement with the model for the structure of the CAP-DNA complex [Weber, I. & Steitz, T. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 3973-3977; and Ebright, R., Cossart, P., Gicquel-Sanzey, B. & Beckwith, J. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7274-7278], that Arg-180 of CAP makes a specificity-determining contact with base pair 5 of the DNA half-site in the CAP-DNA complex. The identification of the contact by Arg-180 in this report, in conjunction with the identification of the contact by Glu-181 in a previous report [Ebright, R., Cossart, P., Gicquel-Sanzey, B. & Beckwith, J. (1984) Nature (London) 311, 232-235], provides information sufficient to define the orientation of the helix-turn-helix motif of CAP with respect to DNA in the CAP-DNA complex.
Identification of novel Drosophila meiotic genes recovered in a P- element screen.
Genetics. 152:529-42. Abstract
The segregation of homologous chromosomes from one another is the essence of meiosis. In many organisms, accurate segregation is ensured by the formation of chiasmata resulting from crossing over. Drosophila melanogaster females use this type of recombination-based system, but they also have mechanisms for segregating achiasmate chromosomes with high fidelity. We describe a P-element mutagenesis and screen in a sensitized genetic background to detect mutations that impair meiotic chromosome pairing, recombination, or segregation. Our screen identified two new recombination-deficient mutations: mei-P22, which fully eliminates meiotic recombination, and mei-P26, which decreases meiotic exchange by 70% in a polar fashion. We also recovered an unusual allele of the ncd gene, whose wild-type product is required for proper structure and function of the meiotic spindle. However, the screen yielded primarily mutants specifically defective in the segregation of achiasmate chromosomes. Although most of these are alleles of previously undescribed genes, five were in the known genes alphaTubulin67C, CycE, push, and Trl. The five mutations in known genes produce novel phenotypes for those genes.
Identification of Target Sites of the Alpha2-Mcm1 Repressor Complex in the Yeast Genome.
Genome Res. 9:1040-1047. Abstract
The alpha2 and Mcm1 proteins bind DNA as a heterotetramer to repress transcription of cell-type-specific genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Based on the DNA sequence requirements for binding by the alpha2-Mcm1 complex, we have searched the yeast genome for all potential alpha2-Mcm1 binding sites. Genes adjacent to the sites were examined for expression in the different cell mating types. These sites were further analyzed by cloning the sequences into a heterologous promoter and assaying for alpha2-Mcm1-dependent repression in vivo and DNA-binding affinity in vitro. Fifty-nine potential binding sites were identified in the search. Thirty-seven sites are located within or downstream of coding region of the gene. None of the sites assayed from this group are functional repressor sites in vivo or bound by the alpha2-Mcm1 complex in vitro. Among the remaining 22 sites, six are in the promoters of known alpha-specific genes and two other sites have an alpha2-Mcm1-dependent role in determining the direction of mating type switching. Among the remaining sequences, we have identified a functional site located in the promoter region of a previously uncharacterized gene, SCYJL170C. This site functions to repress transcription of a heterologous promoter and the alpha2-Mcm1 complex binds to the site in vitro. SCYJL170C is repressed by alpha2-Mcm1 in vivo and therefore using this method we have identified a new a-specific gene, which we call ASG7.
Identification of the activating region of catabolite gene activator protein (CAP): isolation and characterization of mutants of CAP specifically defective in transcription activation..
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 90(13):6081-5. Abstract
We have isolated 21 mutants of catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) defective in transcription activation at the lac promoter but not defective in DNA binding. The amino acid substitutions in the mutants map to a single region of CAP: amino acids 156-162. As assessed in vitro, the substituted CAP variants are nearly completely unable to activate transcription at the lac promoter but bind to DNA with the same affinity and bend DNA to the same extent as wild-type CAP. Our results establish that amino acids 156-162 are critical for transcription activation at the lac promoter but not for DNA binding and DNA bending. In the structure of CAP, amino acids 156-162 are part of a surface loop. We propose that this surface loop makes a direct protein-protein contact with RNA polymerase at the lac promoter.
Identification of the functional subunit of a dimeric transcription activator protein by use of oriented heterodimers..
Cell. 73(2):375-9. Abstract
We have constructed heterodimers consisting of two subunits: one CAP subunit that has a nonfunctional activating region but wild-type DNA binding specificity, and one CAP subunit that has a functional activating region but non-wild-type DNA binding specificity. We have oriented the heterodimers on lac promoter DNA by use of promoter derivatives that have DNA sites for CAP consisting of one wild-type half site and one non-wild-type half site, and we have analyzed the abilities of the oriented heterodimers to activate transcription. Our results indicate that transcription. Our results indicate that transcription activation requires the activating region of only one subunit of CAP: the promoter-proximal subunit. The oriented heterodimers method of this report should be generalizable to other dimeric transcription activator proteins.
Indirect readout of DNA sequence at the primary-kink site in the CAP-DNA complex: alteration of DNA binding specificity through alteration of DNA kinking..
Journal of molecular biology. 314(1):75-82. Abstract
The catabolite activator protein (CAP) sharply bends DNA in the CAP-DNA complex, introducing a DNA kink, with a roll angle of approximately 40 degrees and a twist angle of approximately 20 degrees, between positions 6 and 7 of the DNA half-site, 5'-A(1)A(2)A(3)T(4)G(5)T(6)G(7)A(8)T(9)C(10)T(11)-3' ("primary kink"). CAP recognizes the base-pair immediately 5' to the primary-kink site, T:A(6), through an "indirect-readout" mechanism involving sequence effects on the energetics of primary-kink formation. CAP recognizes the base-pair immediately 3' to the primary-kink site, G:C(7), through a "direct-readout" mechanism involving formation of a hydrogen bond between Glu181 of CAP and G:C(7). Here, we report that substitution of the carboxylate side-chain of Glu181 of CAP by the one-methylene-group-shorter carboxylate side-chain of Asp changes DNA binding specificity at position 6 of the DNA half site, changing specificity for T:A(6) to specificity for C:G(6), and we report a crystallographic analysis defining the structural basis of the change in specificity. The Glu181-->Asp substitution eliminates the primary kink and thus eliminates indirect-readout-based specificity for T:A(6). The Glu181-->Asp substitution does not eliminate hydrogen-bond formation with G:C(7), and thus does not eliminate direct-readout-based specificity for G:C(7).