Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA coding for the mouse alpha-like embryonic globin chain x.
Gene. 31:241-5. Abstract
Cytoplasmic poly(A)+mRNA from 12-day mouse-yolk-sac erythroid cells has been used to prepare a cDNA library in the plasmid pBR322. One clone containing sequences coding for the alpha-like embryonic globin chain x, pHE52, has been identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the complementary mRNA. The nucleotide sequence of pHE52 confirms that it codes for an embryonic alpha-like globin chain. The insert sequence is 316 nucleotides long, contains the codons corresponding to amino acid residues 43-141, and extends into the 3' untranslated region. An analysis of the nucleotide sequence of pHE52 and the other known alpha globins suggests that the adult-embryonic divergence began approx. 400 million years ago reflecting a difference in the evolutionary history of the alpha- and beta-globin gene complexes.
Rifamycins do not function by allosteric modulation of binding of Mg2+ to the RNA polymerase active center..
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105(39):14820-5. Abstract
Rifamycin antibacterial agents inhibit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) by binding to a site adjacent to the RNAP active center and preventing synthesis of RNA products >2-3 nt in length. Recently, Artsimovitch et al. [(2005) Cell 122:351-363] proposed that rifamycins function by allosteric modulation of binding of Mg(2+) to the RNAP active center and presented three lines of biochemical evidence consistent with this proposal. Here, we show that rifamycins do not affect the affinity of binding of Mg(2+) to the RNAP active center, and we reassess the three lines of biochemical evidence, obtaining results not supportive of the proposal. We conclude that rifamycins do not function by allosteric modulation of binding of Mg(2+) to the RNAP active center.
Fat and expanded act in parallel to regulate growth through warts.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104:20362-7. Abstract
The conserved Drosophila tumor suppressors Fat and Expanded have both recently been implicated in regulating the activity of the Warts tumor suppressor. However, there has been disagreement as to the nature of the links among Fat, Expanded, and Warts and the significance of these links to growth control. We report here that mutations in either expanded or fat can be rescued to viability simply by overexpressing Warts, indicating that their essential function is their influence on Warts rather than reported effects on endocytosis or other pathways. These rescue experiments also separate the transcriptional from the planar cell polarity branches of Fat signaling and reveal that Expanded does not directly affect polarity. We also investigate the relationship between expanded and fat and show, contrary to prior reports, that they have additive effects on imaginal disk growth and development. Although mutation of fat can cause partial loss of Expanded protein from the membrane, mutation of fat promotes growth even when Expanded is overexpressed and accumulates at its normal subapical location. These observations argue against recent proposals that Fat acts simply as a receptor for the Hippo signaling pathway and instead support the proposal that Fat and Expanded can act in parallel to regulate Warts through distinct mechanisms.
Processing and phosphorylation of the Fat receptor.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Abstract
The Drosophila tumor suppressors fat and discs overgrown (dco) function within an intercellular signaling pathway that controls growth and polarity. fat encodes a transmembrane receptor, but post-translational regulation of Fat has not been described. We show here that Fat is subject to a constitutive proteolytic processing, such that most or all cell surface Fat comprises a heterodimer of stably associated N- and C-terminal fragments. The cytoplasmic domain of Fat is phosphorylated, and this phosphorylation is promoted by the Fat ligand Dachsous. dco encodes a kinase that influences Fat signaling, and Dco is able to promote the phosphorylation of the Fat intracellular domain in cultured cells and in vivo. Evaluation of dco mutants indicates that they affect Fat's influence on growth and gene expression but not its influence on planar cell polarity. Our observations identify processing and phosphorylation as post-translational modifications of Fat, correlate the phosphorylation of Fat with its activation by Dachsous in the Fat-Warts pathway, and enhance our understanding of the requirement for Dco in Fat signaling.
Mutational analysis of the Drosophila tolloid gene, a human BMP-1 homolog.
Development (Cambridge, England). 120:861-70. Abstract
Seven zygotically active genes have been identified in Drosophila that determine the fate of dorsal cells in the developing embryo. decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, appears to play the central role in dorsal ectoderm formation, as mutations in this gene confer the most severe mutant phenotype of this group of genes. dpp's activity is modulated by tolloid, which also has a role in the determination of dorsal cell fate. tolloid encodes a protein that contains a metalloprotease domain and regulatory domains consisting of two EGF motifs and five C1r/s repeats. We have generated several mutant tolloid alleles and have examined their interaction with a graded set of dpp point alleles. Some tolloid alleles act as dominant enhancers of dpp in a trans heterozygote, and are therefore antimorphic alleles. However, a tolloid deficiency shows no such genetic interaction. To characterize the nature of the tolloid mutations, we have sequenced eighteen tolloid alleles. We find that five of the seven alleles that act as dominant enhancers of dpp are missense mutations in the protease domain. We also find that most tolloid alleles that do not interact with dpp are missense mutations in the C-terminal EGF and C1r/s repeats, or encode truncated proteins that delete these repeats. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the tolloid protein functions by forming a complex containing DPP via protein-interacting EGF and C1r/s domains, and that the protease activity of TOLLOID is necessary, either directly or indirectly, for the activation of the DPP complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The tolkin gene is a tolloid/BMP-1 homologue that is essential for Drosophila development.
Genetics. 141:271-81. Abstract
The Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of growth factors, is critical for specification of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis, for proper formation of the midgut, and for formation of Drosophila adult structures. The Drosophila tolloid gene has been shown to genetically interact with dpp. The genetic interactions between tolloid and dpp suggests a model in which the tolloid protein participates in a complex containing the DPP ligand, its protease serving to activate DPP, either directly or indirectly. We report here the identification and cloning of another Drosophila member of the tolloid/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 1 family, tolkin, which is located 700 bp 5' to tolloid. Its overall structure is like tolloid, with an N-terminal metalloprotease domain, five complement subcomponents C1r/C1s, Uegf, and Bmp1 (CUB) repeats and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats. Its expression pattern overlaps that of tolloid and dpp in early embryos and diverges in later stages. In larval tissues, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed uniformly in the imaginal disks. In the brain, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed in the outer proliferation center, whereas tolkin has another stripe of expression near the outer proliferation center. Analysis of lethal mutations in tolkin indicate it is vital during larval and pupal stages. Analysis of its mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggests that its functions may be mostly independent of tolloid and dpp.
Sfp1 Plays a key role in Yeast Ribosome Biogenesis.
Eukaryot Cell. 2:1061-1068. Abstract
Sfp1, an unusual zinc finger protein, was previously identified as a gene that, when overexpressed, imparted a nuclear localization defect. sfp1 cells have a reduced size and a slow growth phenotype. In this study we show that SFP1 plays a role in ribosome biogenesis. An sfp1 strain is hypersensitive to drugs that inhibit translational machinery. sfp1 strains also have defects in global translation as well as defects in rRNA processing and 60S ribosomal subunit export. Microarray analysis has previously shown that ectopically expressed SFP1 induces the transcription of a large subset of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. Many of these induced genes contain conserved promoter elements (RRPE and PAC). Our results show that activation of transcription from a reporter construct containing two RRPE sites flanking a single PAC element is SFP1 dependent. However, we have been unable to detect direct binding of the protein to these elements. This suggests that regulation of genes containing RRPEs is dependent upon Sfp1 but that Sfp1 may not directly bind to these conserved promoter elements; rather, activation may occur through an indirect mechanism.
Characterization of Critical Interactions Between Ndt80 and MSe DNa Defining a Novel Family of Ig-fold Transcription Factors.
Nucleic Acids Res. 32:2947-2956. Abstract
The Ndt80 protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the founding member of a new sub-family of proteins in the Ig-fold superfamily of transcription factors. The crystal structure of Ndt80 bound to DNA shows that it makes contacts through several loops on one side of the protein that connect beta-strands which form the beta-sandwich fold common to proteins in this superfamily. However, the DNA-binding domain of Ndt80 is considerably larger than many other members of the Ig-fold superfamily and it appears to make a larger number of contacts with the DNA than these proteins. To determine the contribution of each of these contacts and to examine if the mechanism of Ndt80 DNA binding was similar to other members of the Ig-fold superfamily, amino acid substitutions were introduced at each residue that contacts the DNA and assayed for their effect on Ndt80 activity. Many of the mutations caused significant decreases in DNA-binding affinity and transcriptional activation. Several of these are in residues that are not found in other sub-families of Ig-fold proteins. These additional contacts are likely responsible for Ndt80's ability to bind DNA as a monomer while most other members require additional domains or cofactors to recognize their sites.
DLG-1 is a MAGUK similar to SAP97 and is required for adherens junction formation.
Mol Biol Cell. 12:3465-75. Abstract
Cellular junctions are critical for intercellular communication and for the assembly of cells into tissues. Cell junctions often consist of tight junctions, which form a permeability barrier and prevent the diffusion of lipids and proteins between cell compartments, and adherens junctions, which control the adhesion of cells and link cortical actin filaments to attachment sites on the plasma membrane. Proper tight junction formation and cell polarity require the function of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) that contain the PDZ protein-protein interaction domain. In contrast, less is known about how adherens junctions are assembled. Here we describe how the PDZ-containing protein DLG-1 is required for the proper formation and function of adherens junctions in Caenorhabditis elegans. DLG-1 is a MAGUK protein that is most similar in sequence to mammalian SAP97, which is found at both synapses of the CNS, as well as at cell junctions of epithelia. DLG-1 is localized to adherens junctions, and DLG-1 localization is mediated by an amino-terminal domain shared with SAP97 but not found in other MAGUK family members. DLG-1 recruits other proteins and signaling molecules to adherens junctions, while embryos that lack DLG-1 fail to recruit the proteins AJM-1 and CPI-1 to adherens junctions. DLG-1 is required for the proper organization of the actin cytoskeleton and for the morphological elongation of embryos. In contrast to other proteins that have been observed to affect adherens junction assembly and function, DLG-1 is not required to maintain cell polarity. Our results suggest a new function for MAGUK proteins distinct from their role in cell polarity.
Intraspecific violation of genetic colinearity and its implications in maize.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 99:9573–9578. Abstract
Although allelic sequences can vary extensively, it is generally assumed that each gene in one individual will have an allelic counterpart in another individual of the same species. We report here that this assumption does not hold true in maize. We have sequenced over 100 kb from the bz genomic region of two different maize lines and have found dramatic differences between them. First, the retrotransposon clusters, which comprise most of the repetitive DNA in maize, differ markedly in make-up and location relative to the genes in the bz region. Second, and more importantly, the genes themselves differ between the two lines, demonstrating that genetic microcolinearity can be violated within the same species. Our finding has bearing on the underlying genetic basis of hybrid vigor in maize, and possibly other organisms, and on the measurement of genetic distances.
Recombination rates between adjacent genic and retrotransposon regions in maize vary by 2 orders of magnitude.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 99:1082–1087. Abstract
Genetic map length and gene number in eukaryotes vary considerably less than genome size, giving rise to the hypothesis that recombination is restricted to genes. The complex genome of maize contains a large fraction of repetitive DNA, composed principally of retrotransposons arranged in clusters. Here, we assess directly the contribution of retrotransposon clusters and genes to genetic length. We first measured recombination across adjacent homozygous genetic intervals on either side of the bronze (bz) locus. We then isolated and characterized two bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing those intervals. Recombination was almost 2 orders of magnitude higher in the distal side, which is gene-dense and lacks retrotransposons, than in the proximal side, which is gene-poor and contains a large cluster of methylated retrotransposons. We conclude that the repetitive retrotransposon DNA in maize, which constitutes the bulk of the genome, most likely contributes little if any to genetic length.