Bacterial promoter architecture: subsite structure of UP elements and interactions with the carboxy-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit..
Genes & development. 13(16):2134-47. Abstract
We demonstrate here that the previously described bacterial promoter upstream element (UP element) consists of two distinct subsites, each of which, by itself, can bind the RNA polymerase holoenzyme alpha subunit carboxy-terminal domain (RNAP alphaCTD) and stimulate transcription. Using binding-site-selection experiments, we identify the consensus sequence for each subsite. The selected proximal subsites (positions -46 to -38; consensus 5'-AAAAAARNR-3') stimulate transcription up to 170-fold, and the selected distal subsites (positions -57 to -47; consensus 5'-AWWWWWTTTTT-3') stimulate transcription up to 16-fold. RNAP has subunit composition alpha(2)betabeta'sigma and thus contains two copies of alphaCTD. Experiments with RNAP derivatives containing only one copy of alphaCTD indicate, in contrast to a previous report, that the two alphaCTDs function interchangeably with respect to UP element recognition. Furthermore, function of the consensus proximal subsite requires only one copy of alphaCTD, whereas function of the consensus distal subsite requires both copies of alphaCTD. We propose that each subsite constitutes a binding site for a copy of alphaCTD, and that binding of an alphaCTD to the proximal subsite region (through specific interactions with a consensus proximal subsite or through nonspecific interactions with a nonconsensus proximal subsite) is a prerequisite for binding of the other alphaCTD to the distal subsite.
MAGI-1 modulates AMPA receptor synaptic localization and behavioral plasticity in response to prior experience.
PLoS One. 4:e4613. Abstract
It is well established that the efficacy of synaptic connections can be rapidly modified by neural activity, yet how the environment and prior experience modulate such synaptic and behavioral plasticity is only beginning to be understood. Here we show in C. elegans that the broadly conserved scaffolding molecule MAGI-1 is required for the plasticity observed in a glutamatergic circuit. This mechanosensory circuit mediates reversals in locomotion in response to touch stimulation, and the AMPA-type receptor (AMPAR) subunits GLR-1 and GLR-2, which are required for reversal behavior, are localized to ventral cord synapses in this circuit. We find that animals modulate GLR-1 and GLR-2 localization in response to prior mechanosensory stimulation; a specific isoform of MAGI-1 (MAGI-1L) is critical for this modulation. We show that MAGI-1L interacts with AMPARs through the intracellular domain of the GLR-2 subunit, which is required for the modulation of AMPAR synaptic localization by mechanical stimulation. In addition, mutations that prevent the ubiquitination of GLR-1 prevent the decrease in AMPAR localization observed in previously stimulated magi-1 mutants. Finally, we find that previously-stimulated animals later habituate to subsequent mechanostimulation more rapidly compared to animals initially reared without mechanical stimulation; MAGI-1L, GLR-1, and GLR-2 are required for this change in habituation kinetics. Our findings demonstrate that prior experience can cause long-term alterations in both behavioral plasticity and AMPAR localization at synapses in an intact animal, and indicate a new, direct role for MAGI/S-SCAM proteins in modulating AMPAR localization and function in the wake of variable sensory experience.
Conversion of a helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding protein into a site-specific DNA cleavage agent..
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87(8):2882-6. Abstract
Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is a helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding protein [de Crombrugghe, B., Busby, S. & Buc, H. (1984) Science 224, 831-838; and Pabo, C. & Sauer, R. (1984) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53, 293-321]. In this work, CAP has been converted into a site-specific DNA cleavage agent by incorporation of the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline at amino acid 10 of the helix-turn-helix motif. [(N-Acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP binds to a 22-base-pair DNA recognition site with Kobs = 1 x 10(8) M-1. In the presence of Cu(II) and reducing agent, [(N-acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP cleaves DNA at four adjacent nucleotides on each DNA strand within the DNA recognition site. The DNA cleavage reaction has been demonstrated using 40-base-pair and 7164-base-pair DNA substrates. The DNA cleavage reaction is not inhibited by dam methylation of the DNA substrate. Such semisynthetic site-specific DNA cleavage agents have potential applications in chromosome mapping, cloning, and sequencing.
Role of glutamic acid-181 in DNA-sequence recognition by the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) of Escherichia coli: altered DNA-sequence-recognition properties of [Val181]CAP and [Leu181]CAP..
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 84(17):6083-7. Abstract
It has been proposed that Glu-181 of the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) makes direct contact with certain base pairs of the specific DNA site. We have purified wild-type CAP and two substituted CAP variants, [Val181]CAP and [Leu181]CAP, and have assessed the DNA-sequence-recognition properties in vitro with respect to positions 5, 6, 7, 8, and 16 of the DNA site. The data indicate that [Val181]CAP and [Leu181]CAP fail to discriminate between the consensus DNA base pair and the three non-consensus-DNA base pairs at 2-fold-related positions 7 and 16 of the DNA site. In contrast, [Val181]CAP and [Leu181]CAP retain the ability to discriminate between different base pairs at positions 5 and 8 of the DNA site. We conclude that Glu-181 of CAP makes a direct contact with 2-fold-related positions 7 and 16 of the DNA site, as proposed previously based on in vivo results. We propose that upon replacement of Glu-181 by valine or leucine, this contact is eliminated and is replaced by no other functional contact. We estimate that the contact by Glu-181 with each position contributes -0.7 kcal/mol to the total CAP-DNA binding free energy.
Use of "loss-of-contact" substitutions to identify residues involved in an amino acid-base pair contact: effect of substitution of Gln18 of lac repressor by Gly, Ser, and Leu..
Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics. 3(2):281-97. Abstract
A procedure to identify which base pair of lac operator (lacO) a suspected contacting amino acid of Lac repressor (LacR) interacts with is presented. The procedure is to eliminate the ability of the amino acid under study to contact DNA, and then to determine at which base pair--if any--specificity is eliminated. To implement this procedure, four sets of Escherichia coli K-12 strains have been constructed. These strains permit: (i) the substitution of a selected amino acid of LacR by, respectively, Gly, Ser, Leu, or Gln, and (ii) the analysis of the specificity of the resulting substituted LacR with respect to base pairs 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 of lacO. This procedure has been applied to Gln18 of LacR. The preliminary data indicate that LacR (Gln18----Gly) is unable to distinguish between the O+ base pair G:C and the Oc base pair T:A at position 7 of lacO (KDOc/KDO+ = 0.93). In contrast, LacR(Gln18----Gly) discriminates O+ from Oc by a factor of 13 to 23 at each other position. The same qualitative pattern of results was obtained with LacR(Gln18----Ser) and LacR (Gln18----Leu). Therefore, I propose that Gln18 contacts base pair 7 of lacO. This proposal is consistent with the contact predicted in Ebright, R. in Protein Structure, Folding, and Design. D. Oxender ed., Alan R. Liss, New York (1985), in press.
S-[2-(4-azidosalicylamido)ethylthio]-2-thiopyridine: radioiodinatable, cleavable, photoactivatible cross-linking agent..
Bioconjugate chemistry. 7(3):380-4. Abstract
S-[2-(4-Azidosalicylamido)ethylthio]-2-thiopyridine (AET) contains a 2-thiopyridyl moiety, which permits cysteine-specific incorporation into protein through a cleavable disulfide bond, and a 4-azidosalicylamido moiety, which permits radioiodination and photoactivatible cross-linking. In contrast to the related compound S-[2-[N-[4-(4-azidosalicylamido)butyl]carbomoyl]ethylthio]-2 -thiopyridine [APDP; Zecherle, G., Oleinikov, A., and Traut, R. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 9526], AET contains a relatively short linker arm between the 2-thiopyridyl moiety and the 4-azidosalicylamido moiety. In a previous paper, it was shown that AET could be used in site-specific protein-protein photocross-linking to identify nearest-neighbor protein domains within a multiprotein complex [Chen, Y., Ebright, Y., and Ebright, R. (1994) Science 265, 90]. In this paper, the synthesis, radioiodination, and incorporation into protein of AET are described.
Molecular basis of DNA sequence recognition by the catabolite gene activator protein: detailed inferences from three mutations that alter DNA sequence specificity..
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81(23):7274-8. Abstract
Previously, we reported that substitution of Glu-181 of the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) by lysine, leucine, or valine results in a protein that has specificity for A X T base pairs at positions 7 and 16 of the DNA recognition site, rather than G X C base pairs as is the case with the wild-type CAP. In this paper, we deduce from these genetic data both (i) the specific chemical interactions by which amino acid side chains at position 181 interact with base pairs 7 and 16 and (ii) the precise alignment between the structures of the CAP and DNA in the intermolecular CAP-DNA complex. Our analysis supports the idea that the two symmetry-related F alpha-helices of the CAP dimer interact with successive major grooves of right-handed B-type DNA [Pabo, C. & Lewis, M. (1982) Nature (London) 298, 443-447; and Steitz, T., Weber, I. & Matthew, J. (1983) Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 47, 419-426].
N-(iodoacetyl)-p-phenylenediamine-EDTA: a reagent for high-efficiency incorporation of an EDTA-metal complex at a rationally selected site within a protein..
Bioconjugate chemistry. 4(3):219-25. Abstract
We have developed a highly efficient procedure to incorporate an EDTA:metal complex at a rationally selected site within a full-length protein. Our procedure has two steps: In step one, we use site-directed mutagenesis to introduce a unique solvent-accessible cysteine residue at the site of interest. In step two, we derivatized the resulting protein with N-(iodoacetyl)-p-phenylenediamine-EDTA:metal, a novel haloacetyl derivative of EDTA:metal. We have used this procedure to incorporate each of three EDTA:metal complexes at amino acid 2 of the helix-turn-helix motif of the sequence-specific DNA binding protein Cro: a radioactive and nucleolytic EDTA:metal complex (EDTA:55Fe), a radioactive EDTA:metal complex (EDTA:63Ni), and a fluorescent and heavy-atom EDTA:metal complex (EDTA:Eu). Incorporation of EDTA:metal was highly efficient (> 80% for EDTA:55Fe and EDTA:63Ni; 60% for EDTA:Eu) and highly site-specific (> 99%). We have analyzed DNA affinity cleaving by the Cro derivative having EDTA:55Fe at amino acid 2 of the helix-turn-helix motif. The Cro derivative cleaves DNA at base pairs -4 to 6 of the DNA half site in the protein-DNA complex, indicating that amino acid 2 of the helix-turn-helix motif of Cro is close to base pairs -4 to 6 of the DNA half site in the Cro-DNA complex in solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Consensus DNA site for the Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP): CAP exhibits a 450-fold higher affinity for the consensus DNA site than for the E. coli lac DNA site..
Nucleic acids research. 17(24):10295-305. Abstract
We have synthesized two 40 base pair DNA fragments; one fragment contains the consensus DNA site for CAP (fragment 'ICAP'); the other fragment contains the E. coli lac promoter DNA site for CAP (fragment 'LCAP'). We have investigated the binding of CAP to the two DNA fragments using the nitrocellulose filter binding assay. Under standard conditions [( NaCl] = 200 mM, pH = 7.3), CAP exhibits a 450-fold higher affinity for ICAP than for LCAP. The salt dependence of the binding equilibrium indicates that CAP makes eight ion pairs with ICAP, but only six ion pairs with LCAP. Approximately half of the difference in binding free energy for interaction of CAP with ICAP vs. LCAP is attributable to this difference in ion-pair formation. The pH dependence of the binding equilibrium indicates that the eight CAP-ICAP ion pairs and the six CAP-LCAP ion pairs do not involve His residues of CAP.
Evidence for a contact between glutamine-18 of lac repressor and base pair 7 of lac operator..
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 83(2):303-7. Abstract
Glutamine-18 of the lac repressor (lacR) has been substituted by glycine, by serine, and by leucine. The specificities of wild-type lacR and of the three substituted lacR variants have been analyzed with respect to base pairs 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 of the lac operator (lacO). The data indicate that [Gly18]lacR, [Ser18]lacR, and [Leu18]lacR lose the ability to distinguish between the O+ base pair G . C and the Oc base pairs T . A and A . T at position 7 of lacO (KdOc/KdO+ approximately equal to 1). In contrast, the three substituted variants retain the ability to discriminate O+ from Oc at each other position, by factors of 9 to 37. Therefore, I propose that glutamine-18 contacts base pair 7 of lacO. These data suggest that the interaction between the helix-turn-helix motif and DNA may be very similar or identical in lacR and the catabolite gene activator protein.
The catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is not required for indole-3-acetic acid to activate transcription of the araBAD operon of Escherichia coli K-12..
Molecular & general genetics : MGG. 201(1):51-5. Abstract
Kline et al. (1980) have reported that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and four other indole derivatives are able to substitute for cAMP in activating expression of the ara regulon of E. coli. We have examined this phenomenon in detail, utilizing fusions between the structural gene for beta-galactosidase and the promoters for the araBAD, araE, and araFG operons. We confirm that IAA potently stimulates transcription from the araBAD promoter. The effect is highly specific to araBAD, as IAA has no, or only slight, effects on the araE and araFG operons. However, contrary to the results of Kline et al., we find that the action of IAA does not require CAP. Thus, IAA fully stimulates the transcription of araBAD in a strain which bears a complete deletion of the crp gene.
Transcription activation at Class I CAP-dependent promoters..
Molecular microbiology. 8(5):797-802. Abstract
Catabolite gene activator protein (CAP)-dependent promoters can be grouped into three classes, based on the requirement for transcription activation and the position of the DNA site for CAP. Class I CAP-dependent promoters require only CAP for transcription activation and have the DNA site for CAP located upstream of the DNA site for RNA polymerase. Amino acids 156 to 162 of the promoter-proximal subunit of CAP are essential for transcription activation at Class I CAP-dependent promoters, but are not essential for DNA binding, and are not essential for DNA bending. In the structure of the CAP-DNA complex, these amino acids are located in a surface loop and form a cluster on the surface of the CAP-DNA complex. Amino acids 261, 265, and 270 of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase are essential for response to transcription activation by CAP at Class I CAP-dependent promoters. Several lines of evidence indicate that transcription activation at Class I CAP-dependent promoters requires a direct protein-protein contact between amino acids 156 to 162 of the promoter-proximal subunit of CAP and a molecule of RNA polymerase bound adjacent to CAP on the same face of the DNA helix. It is a strong possibility that this direct protein-protein contact involves amino acids 261 and 265 of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase.
Corrected nucleotide sequence of M13mp18 gene III..
Gene. 114(1):81-3. Abstract
There are seven differences between the actual nucleotide (nt) sequence of bacteriophage M13mp18 gene III and the previously reported nt sequence (which had been compiled based on the nt sequence of wild-type bacteriophage M13 gene III).
Lysine 188 of the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) plays no role in specificity at base pair 7 of the DNA half site..
Nucleic acids research. 18(6):1457-64. Abstract
Two similar, but not identical, models have been proposed for the amino acid-base pair contacts in the CAP-DNA complex ('model I,' Weber, I. and Steitz, T., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81, 3973-3977, 1984; 'model II,' Ebright, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81, 7274-7278, 1984). The most important difference between the two models involves Lys188 of CAP. Model I predicts that Lys188 of CAP makes a specificity determining contact with base pair 7 of the DNA half site. In contrast, model II predicts that Lys188 makes no contact with base pair 7 of the DNA half site. In the present work, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to replace Lys188 of CAP by Asn, an amino acid unable to make the putative contact. We have assessed the specificities of the following proteins, both in vitro and in vivo: wild-type CAP, [Asn188]CAP, [Val181]CAP, and [Val181;Asn188]CAP. The results indicate that Lys188 makes no contribution to specificity at base pair 7 of the DNA half site. We propose, contrary to model I, that Lys188 makes no contact with base pair 7 of the DNA half site.
Binding of 2-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene to estrogen receptors in rat cytosol..
Cancer research. 46(5):2349-51. Abstract
The potent carcinogen 2-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (2-OH-BP) competes for binding to the estrogen receptor in the cytosol of rat uterus and liver. The dissociation constant (K1) for this interaction is congruent to 2 X 10(-5) M. In contrast, 4-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene does not bind to the estrogen receptor; 1-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, 5-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, 6-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, and 12-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene bind less tightly than does 2-OH-BP. These five chemicals are not carcinogenic. We suggest that the estrogen receptor may mediate the carcinogenic effect of 2-OH-BP or of related chemicals. One possibility is that the receptor might convey 2-OH-BP to specific sites in DNA.
Analogs of cyclic AMP that elicit the biochemically defined conformational change in catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) but do not stimulate binding to DNA..
Journal of molecular biology. 182(1):91-107. Abstract
We have measured the effects on catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) of 22 synthetic analogs of cAMP. Each analog was assayed to test three parameters: (1) binding to CAP; (2) induction of the conformational change in CAP; and (3) activation of transcription. Thus we have identified seven cAMP analogs that bind to CAP as well or better than does cAMP, cause the assayed conformational change in CAP, yet exhibit no ability to activate transcription. We designate these analogs class D. The conformational change elicited in CAP by the class D analogs was further investigated by: (1) sensitivity to the proteolytic enzymes chymotrypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, subtilisin and trypsin; (2) formation of inter-subunit covalent crosslinks by 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid); and (3) degree of labeling of cysteine by [3H]N-ethylmaleimide. These experiments failed to detect a conformational difference between the CAP-class D and CAP-cAMP complexes. Filter binding and nuclease protection experiments indicate that the class D analogs do not efficiently support the binding of CAP to DNA. From these results, we suggest that there exists a hitherto undetected event dependent on cAMP, and required for CAP to bind to DNA. We suggest that this event involves a change that takes place in proximity to the N6 atom of cAMP. Three possible interpretations are discussed.
The Escherichia coli RNA polymerase alpha subunit: structure and function..
Current opinion in genetics & development. 5(2):197-203. Abstract
Recent work has established that the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase alpha subunit consists of an amino-terminal domain containing determinants for interaction with the remainder of RNA polymerase, a carboxy-terminal domain containing determinants for interaction with DNA and interaction with transcriptional activator proteins, and a 13-36 amino acid unstructured and/or flexible linker. These findings suggest a simple, integrated model for the mechanism of involvement of alpha in promoter recognition and transcriptional activation.
Incorporation of an EDTA-metal complex at a rationally selected site within a protein: application to EDTA-iron DNA affinity cleaving with catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) and Cro..
Biochemistry. 31(44):10664-70. Abstract
We have developed a simple procedure to incorporate an EDTA-metal complex at a rationally selected site within a full-length protein. Our procedure has two steps: In step 1, we use site-directed mutagenesis to introduce a unique solvent-accessible cysteine residue at the site of interest. In step 2, we derivatize the resulting protein with S-(2-pyridylthio)cysteaminyl-EDTA-metal, a novel aromatic disulfide derivative of EDTA-metal. We have used this procedure to incorporate an EDTA-iron complex at amino acid 2 of the helix-turn-helix motif of each of two helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding proteins, catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) and Cro, and we have analyzed EDTA-iron-mediated DNA affinity cleavage by the resulting protein derivatives. The CAP derivative cleaves DNA at base pair 2 of the DNA half-site in the protein-DNA complex, and the Cro derivative cleaves DNA at base pairs -3 to 5 of the DNA half-site in the protein-DNA complex. We infer that amino acid 2 of the helix-turn-helix motif of CAP is close to base pair 2 of the DNA half-site in the CAP-DNA complex in solution and that amino acid 2 of the helix-turn-helix motif of Cro is close to base pairs -3 to 5 of the DNA half-site in the Cro-DNA complex in solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)