Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA coding for the mouse alpha-like embryonic globin chain x.
Gene. 31:241-5. Abstract
Cytoplasmic poly(A)+mRNA from 12-day mouse-yolk-sac erythroid cells has been used to prepare a cDNA library in the plasmid pBR322. One clone containing sequences coding for the alpha-like embryonic globin chain x, pHE52, has been identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the complementary mRNA. The nucleotide sequence of pHE52 confirms that it codes for an embryonic alpha-like globin chain. The insert sequence is 316 nucleotides long, contains the codons corresponding to amino acid residues 43-141, and extends into the 3' untranslated region. An analysis of the nucleotide sequence of pHE52 and the other known alpha globins suggests that the adult-embryonic divergence began approx. 400 million years ago reflecting a difference in the evolutionary history of the alpha- and beta-globin gene complexes.
Mutational analysis of the Drosophila tolloid gene, a human BMP-1 homolog.
Development (Cambridge, England). 120:861-70. Abstract
Seven zygotically active genes have been identified in Drosophila that determine the fate of dorsal cells in the developing embryo. decapentaplegic (dpp), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, appears to play the central role in dorsal ectoderm formation, as mutations in this gene confer the most severe mutant phenotype of this group of genes. dpp's activity is modulated by tolloid, which also has a role in the determination of dorsal cell fate. tolloid encodes a protein that contains a metalloprotease domain and regulatory domains consisting of two EGF motifs and five C1r/s repeats. We have generated several mutant tolloid alleles and have examined their interaction with a graded set of dpp point alleles. Some tolloid alleles act as dominant enhancers of dpp in a trans heterozygote, and are therefore antimorphic alleles. However, a tolloid deficiency shows no such genetic interaction. To characterize the nature of the tolloid mutations, we have sequenced eighteen tolloid alleles. We find that five of the seven alleles that act as dominant enhancers of dpp are missense mutations in the protease domain. We also find that most tolloid alleles that do not interact with dpp are missense mutations in the C-terminal EGF and C1r/s repeats, or encode truncated proteins that delete these repeats. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the tolloid protein functions by forming a complex containing DPP via protein-interacting EGF and C1r/s domains, and that the protease activity of TOLLOID is necessary, either directly or indirectly, for the activation of the DPP complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The tolkin gene is a tolloid/BMP-1 homologue that is essential for Drosophila development.
Genetics. 141:271-81. Abstract
The Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) gene, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of growth factors, is critical for specification of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis, for proper formation of the midgut, and for formation of Drosophila adult structures. The Drosophila tolloid gene has been shown to genetically interact with dpp. The genetic interactions between tolloid and dpp suggests a model in which the tolloid protein participates in a complex containing the DPP ligand, its protease serving to activate DPP, either directly or indirectly. We report here the identification and cloning of another Drosophila member of the tolloid/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 1 family, tolkin, which is located 700 bp 5' to tolloid. Its overall structure is like tolloid, with an N-terminal metalloprotease domain, five complement subcomponents C1r/C1s, Uegf, and Bmp1 (CUB) repeats and two epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats. Its expression pattern overlaps that of tolloid and dpp in early embryos and diverges in later stages. In larval tissues, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed uniformly in the imaginal disks. In the brain, both tolloid and tolkin are expressed in the outer proliferation center, whereas tolkin has another stripe of expression near the outer proliferation center. Analysis of lethal mutations in tolkin indicate it is vital during larval and pupal stages. Analysis of its mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggests that its functions may be mostly independent of tolloid and dpp.